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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(B) OR 12(G) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report _____________

For the transition period from _____________to _____________

Commission file number:   001-35729

JOYY INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Building B-1, North Block of Wanda Plaza, No. 79 Wanbo Er Road,

Nancun Town, Panyu District

Guangzhou 511442

The People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Bing Jin,

Chief Financial Officer,

Tel: +86 (20) 8212-0088, E-mail: jinbing@yy.com, Fax: +86 (20) 8212-0887

Building B-1, North Block of Wanda Plaza, No. 79 Wanbo Er Road,

Nancun Town, Panyu District

Guangzhou 511442

The People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

    

Trading symbol(s)

    

Name of Exchange on Which Registered

 

 

 

American depositary shares (each representing 20 Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share)

YY

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share*

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

*      Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC of the American depositary shares (“ADSs”).

Table of Contents

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 1,293,162,504 Class A common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, and 326,509,555 Class B common shares, par value US$0.00001 per share, were outstanding as of December 31, 2019.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes  No 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes  No 

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  

    

Accelerated filer  

Non-accelerated filer  

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the

Other 

 

International Accounting Standards Board

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17         Item 18 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes  No 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes  No 

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

1

PART I

2

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

2

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

2

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

3

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

57

ITEM 4A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

93

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

93

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

120

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

131

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

140

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

141

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

142

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

157

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

158

PART II

160

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

160

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

160

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

161

ITEM 16.

RESERVED

161

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

162

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS

162

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

162

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

162

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

163

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

163

ITEM 16G.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

163

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

163

PART III

163

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

163

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

163

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

164

SIGNATURES

171

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INTRODUCTION

Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

“active user” for any period means a registered user account that has logged onto our platforms at least once during such relevant period;
“concurrent users” for any point in time means the total number of users that are simultaneously logged onto at least one of our platforms at such point in time;
“paying user” for any period means a registered user account that has purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platforms at least once during the relevant period. A paying user is not necessarily a unique user, however, as a unique user may set up multiple paying user accounts on our platforms; thus, the number of paying users referred to in this annual report may be higher than the number of unique users who are purchasing virtual items or other products and services;
“registered user account” means a user account that has downloaded, registered and logged onto our platforms at least once since registration. We calculate registered user accounts as the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto our platforms at least once after registration. Each individual user may have more than one registered user account, and consequently, the number of registered user accounts we present in this annual report may overstate the number of unique individuals who are our registered users; and
"we," "us," "our company," and "our" refer to JOYY Inc., a Cayman Islands company, its subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities (also referred to as variable interest entities) and the subsidiaries of its consolidated affiliated entities, as the context may require.

We present our financial results in RMB. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or RMB, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of RMB into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. This annual report contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of Renminbi into U.S. dollars were made at the rate at RMB6.9618 to US$1.00, the exchange rate as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in effect as of December 31, 2019.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “is expected to,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our growth strategies;
our ability to retain and increase our user base and expand our product and service offerings;
our ability to monetize our platforms;

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our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
competition from companies in a number of industries, including internet companies that provide online voice and video communications services, social networking services and online games;
expected changes in our revenues and certain cost or expense items;
general economic and business condition in China and elsewhere; and
assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

You should thoroughly read this annual report and the documents that we refer to herein with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and/or worse than what we expect. Other sections of this annual report, including the Risk Factors and Operating and Financial Review and Prospects sections, discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements we make as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

PART I

ITEM 1.               IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.               OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

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ITEM 3.               KEY INFORMATION

A. Selected Financial Data

The following table presents the selected consolidated financial information for our company. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the three years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019 and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included in this annual report beginning on page F-1. Our selected consolidated statements of operation data for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2016 and our consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report. Beginning in 2018, we changed our revenues presentation to live streaming and others (which mainly represent revenues from online games, memberships and other revenues). As a result, we also retrospectively changed the revenue presentation for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP. Our historical results for any period are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for any future period. You should read the following selected financial information in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes and the information under “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report.

For the Year Ended December 31,

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(All amounts in thousands, except share, ADS, per share and per ADS data)

Selected Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net Revenues(1)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Live streaming

 

4,539,857

 

7,027,227

 

10,670,954

 

14,877,667

 

24,028,299

 

3,451,449

Others

 

1,357,392

 

1,176,823

 

923,838

 

885,890

 

1,547,905

 

222,343

Total net revenues

 

5,897,249

 

8,204,050

 

11,594,792

 

15,763,557

 

25,576,204

 

3,673,792

Cost of revenues (2)

 

(3,579,744)

 

(5,103,430)

 

(7,026,402)

 

(10,017,134)

 

(17,148,350)

 

(2,463,206)

Gross profit

 

2,317,505

 

3,100,620

 

4,568,390

 

5,746,423

 

8,427,854

 

1,210,586

Operating expenses:(2)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Research and development expenses

 

(548,799)

 

(675,230)

 

(781,886)

 

(1,192,052)

 

(2,535,482)

 

(364,199)

Sales and marketing expenses

 

(312,870)

 

(387,268)

 

(691,281)

 

(1,149,316)

 

(3,739,724)

 

(537,178)

General and administrative expenses

 

(358,474)

 

(482,437)

 

(544,641)

 

(883,225)

 

(1,489,495)

 

(213,953)

Goodwill impairment

 

(310,124)

 

(17,665)

 

(2,527)

 

 

 

Fair value change of contingent consideration

 

292,471

 

 

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

 

(1,237,796)

 

(1,562,600)

 

(2,020,335)

 

(3,224,593)

 

(7,764,701)

 

(1,115,330)

Gain on deconsolidation and disposal of subsidiaries and business

 

 

103,960

 

37,989

 

 

82,699

 

11,879

Operating income

 

1,162,009

 

1,771,484

 

2,699,231

 

2,639,690

 

1,067,955

 

153,402

Fair value loss on derivative liabilities

 

 

 

 

(2,285,223)

 

(16,011)

 

(2,300)

Gain on fair value changes of investments

 

 

 

 

1,689,404

 

2,679,312

 

384,859

Income before income tax expenses

 

1,162,512

 

1,783,811

 

2,891,178

 

2,534,471

 

4,208,111

 

604,457

Net income attributable to common shareholders of the Company

 

1,033,243

 

1,523,918

 

2,493,235

 

1,641,958

 

3,379,330

 

485,410

Weighted average number of ADS used in calculating net income per ADS:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

56,259,499

 

56,367,166

 

59,323,007

 

64,042,390

 

77,219,846

 

77,219,846

Diluted

 

57,541,558

 

60,805,566

 

60,831,887

 

64,704,470

 

78,254,045

 

78,254,045

Net income per ADS(3)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

18.37

 

27.04

 

42.03

 

25.64

 

43.76

 

6.29

Diluted

 

17.96

 

26.40

 

41.33

 

25.38

 

43.01

 

6.18

Weighted average number of common shares used in calculating net income per common share:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

1,125,189,978

 

1,127,343,312

 

1,186,460,144

 

1,280,847,795

 

1,544,396,920

 

1,544,396,920

Diluted

 

1,150,831,163

 

1,216,111,329

 

1,216,637,741

 

1,294,089,406

 

1,565,080,905

 

1,565,080,905

Net income per common share(3)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic

 

0.92

 

1.35

 

2.10

 

1.28

 

2.19

 

0.31

Diluted

 

0.90

 

1.32

 

2.07

 

1.27

 

2.15

 

0.31

(1)From January 1, 2018, revenue presentation has been changed to live streaming and others. We also have retrospectively changed the revenue presentation for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2016 and 2017.

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(2)Share-based compensation was allocated in cost of revenues and operating expenses as follows:

For the Year Ended December 31,

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

 

Cost of revenues

 

23,963

 

15,894

 

42,759

 

74,339

 

81,254

 

11,671

Research and development expenses

 

70,951

 

78,816

 

122,348

 

225,173

 

505,697

 

72,639

Sales and marketing expenses

 

3,283

 

3,107

 

4,417

 

5,723

 

12,718

 

1,827

General and administrative expenses

 

87,175

 

59,469

 

88,137

 

342,790

 

348,479

 

50,056

Total

 

185,372

 

157,286

 

257,661

 

648,025

 

948,148

 

136,193

(3)Each ADS represents 20 Class A common shares.

The following table presents our selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019.

As of December 31,

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

RMB

    

US$

(in thousands)

 

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

928,934

 

1,579,743

 

2,617,432

 

6,004,231

 

3,893,538

 

559,272

Restricted cash and cash equivalents

 

 

 

 

 

4,892

 

703

Short-term deposits

 

1,894,946

 

3,751,519

 

6,000,104

 

7,326,996

 

16,770,885

 

2,408,987

Restricted short-term deposits

 

 

 

1,000,000

 

 

653,034

 

93,802

Short-term investments

 

 

 

124,550

 

979,053

 

5,622,189

 

807,577

Goodwill

 

151,638

 

14,300

 

11,716

 

11,763

 

12,947,192

 

1,859,748

Total assets*

 

7,302,754

 

9,785,792

 

14,458,719

 

25,768,045

 

52,209,483

 

7,499,423

Convertible bonds (current)**

 

 

2,768,469

 

 

6,863

 

 

Total current liabilities

 

1,384,414

 

4,690,448

 

3,145,799

 

3,853,026

 

7,637,621

 

1,097,076

Convertible bonds (non-current)

 

2,572,119

 

 

6,536

 

 

5,008,571

 

719,436

Mezzanine equity

 

61,833

 

9,272

 

524,997

 

418,673

 

466,071

 

66,947

Class A common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 10,000,000,000 shares authorized, 728,227,848, 750,115,028, 945,245,908, 981,740,848 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018;1,301,845,404 shares issued and 1,293,162,504 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2019, respectively)

43

44

57

59

80

11

Class B common shares (US$0.00001 par value; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized, 369,557,976 , 359,557,976, 317,982,976, 288,182,976 and 326,509,555 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively)

27

26

23

21

24

3

Retained earnings

 

1,207,168

 

2,728,736

 

5,218,110

 

6,913,469

 

10,272,122

 

1,475,498

Total shareholders' equity

 

3,246,819

 

5,052,555

 

10,712,859

 

21,377,131

 

38,417,766

 

5,518,366

Notes:

*     Effective January 2016, ASU 2015-3 issued by FASB requires entities to present the issuance costs of bonds in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the related bonds rather than assets. Accordingly, we retrospectively reclassified RMB25.3 million of issuance cost of bonds from other non-current assets into convertible bonds as of December 31, 2015.

**   Convertible bonds classified in current liabilities represent convertible senior notes which may be redeemed within one year.

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B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

An investment in our capital stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this annual report, before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could suffer. In that case, the trading price of our capital stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

Our business is based on a relatively new business model in a relatively new market in which user demand may change or decrease substantially.

Many of the elements of our business are unique, evolving and relatively unproven. The markets for our technology, especially our video content technology, and products and services are relatively new and rapidly developing and are subject to significant challenges. Our business plan relies heavily upon increased revenues from our live streaming services and our ability to successfully monetize our user base and products and services, and we may not succeed in any of these respects.

As the online live streaming industry in China is relatively young and untested, there are few proven methods of projecting user demand or available industry standards on which we can rely. Furthermore, some of our current monetization methods are in a relatively preliminary stage. For example, if we fail to properly manage the supply and timing of our in-game virtual items and the appropriate price points for these products and services, our users may be less likely to purchase in-game virtual items from us. For non-game virtual items, we consider industry standards and expected user demand in determining how to most effectively optimize virtual item merchandizing. We cannot assure you that our attempts to monetize our user base and products and services will continue to be successful, profitable or widely accepted, and therefore the future revenue and income potential of our business are difficult to evaluate.

If we fail to effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We have experienced a period of significant rapid growth and expansion that has placed, and continues to place, significant strain on our management and resources. We cannot assure you that this level of significant growth will be sustainable or achieved at all in the future. We believe that our continued growth will depend on our ability to develop new sources of revenue, increase monetization, attract new users, retain and expand paying users, encourage additional purchases by our paying users, continue developing innovative products, services and technologies in response to user demand, increase brand awareness through marketing and promotional activities, react to changes in user access to and use of the internet, expand into new market segments, integrate new devices, platforms and operating systems, develop new advertising and promotion methods, attract new advertisers and retain existing advertisers and take advantage of any growth in the relevant markets. We cannot assure you that we will achieve any of the above or achieve any of the above in a cost-effective manner.

To manage our growth and maintain profitability, we anticipate that we will need to continue to implement, from time to time, a variety of new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls on an as-needed basis. We will also need to further expand, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with users, performers, third party game developers, advertisers media platforms and other business partners. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require substantial management efforts and skills and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively manage our growth or implement our future business strategies, and failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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We cannot guarantee that we will be able to successfully carry out our overseas expansion strategy. We will face certain risks inherent in doing business internationally, including but not limited to: difficulties in developing, staffing and simultaneously managing a foreign operation as a result of distance, language and cultural differences; challenges in formulating effective local sales and marketing strategies targeting users from various jurisdictions and cultures, who have a diverse range of preferences and demands; challenges in identifying appropriate local business partners and establishing and maintaining good working relationships with them; challenges in obtaining and maintaining sufficient intellectual property protection and rights in various jurisdictions; dependence on local platforms in marketing our international products and services overseas; challenges in selecting suitable geographical regions for international business; political or social unrest or economic instability; compliance with applicable foreign laws and regulations and unexpected changes in laws or regulations; exposure to different tax jurisdictions that may subject us to greater fluctuations in our effective tax rate and potentially adverse tax consequences; and increased costs associated with doing business in foreign jurisdictions.

We are a relatively young company, and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries globally and with limited operating histories may be exposed to or encounter, including possible volatility in the trading prices of our ADSs.

We expect that we will continue to incur significant costs and expenses in many aspects of our business, such as sales and marketing expenses to acquire users and raise our brand awareness, as well as research and development costs to update existing services and launch new services and rising bandwidth costs to support our video function, grow our user base and generally expand our business operations. We have been profitable since 2012 and achieved accumulated profitability since 2014, but we may not generate sufficient revenues to offset such costs to achieve or sustain profitability in the future. In addition, our subsidiary Bigo Inc, or Bigo, historically incurred net losses or have relatively lower profit margins, and our consolidation Bigo’s results of operations had adversely impacted our results of operations previously and may continue to incur such impact in the future due to relatively lower margins or loss making. On April 3, 2020, we transferred 16,523,819 Class B ordinary shares of HUYA Inc., or Huya, to Linen Investment Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tencent Holdings Limited, or Tencent, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately US$262.6 million in cash, pursuant to Tencent’s exercise of its option to purchase additional shares of Huya. As a result of such transfer to Tencent, Tencent became the controlling shareholder of Huya and will consolidate financial statements of Huya. Our deconsolidation of Huya’s results of operations may have adverse effect on our results of operations. Moreover, we expect to continue to invest heavily in our operations to maintain our current market position, support our anticipated future growth and meet our expanded reporting and compliance obligations as a public company.

Our profitability is also affected by other factors beyond our control. The continued success of our business depends on our ability to identify which services will appeal to our user base and to offer such services on commercially acceptable terms. Our ability to finance our planned expansion also depends in part on our ability to convert active users into paying users and increase the average revenue per paying user, or ARPU, and successfully compete in a very competitive market.

We have a limited operating history. We introduced YY Client in July 2008. Our business has been evolving constantly with the introduction of new businesses, including but not limited to Bigo. As a result of our relatively short history and introduction of new businesses, our historical results of operations may not provide a meaningful basis for evaluating our business, financial performance and future prospects. We may not be able to achieve similar growth rates in future periods as we had witnessed historically. Accordingly, you should not rely on our results of operations for any prior periods as an indication of our future performance. We may again incur net losses and experience adverse impact on our results of operations brought on by our new businesses in the future and you should consider our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainties which early-stage companies in evolving industries globally with limited operating histories such as ours may be exposed to or encounter, including risks associated with being a public company with global business operations. See “—Risks Related to Our ADSs—The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.”

Our business is heavily dependent on revenues from live streaming services. If our live streaming revenue declines in the future, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Historically, a substantial majority of our revenues are from live streaming service, membership subscription fees and online games. In the year ended December 31, 2019, revenues from live streaming constituted 93.9% of our total net revenue. We expect that our business will continue to be dependent on revenues from live streaming services in the future. Any decline in live streaming revenues may materially and adversely affect our results of operations. See “—The revenue model for each of our live streaming and our membership program may not remain effective, which may affect our ability to retain existing users and attract new users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

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We may face significant risks related to the content and communications on our platforms.

Our live streaming, short-form video and video communication platforms enable users to exchange information, generate and distribute content, advertise products and services, conduct business and engage in various other online activities. However, because a majority of the communications on our platforms are conducted in real time, we are unable to verify the sources of all information posted thereon or examine the content generated by users before it is posted. Therefore, it is possible that users may engage in illegal, obscene or incendiary conversations or activities, including the publishing of inappropriate, infringing or illegal content on our platforms that may be deemed unlawful. If any content on our platforms is considered or deemed illegal, obscene, infringing or incendiary, or if appropriate licenses and third party consents have not been obtained, allegations or claims may be brought against us for defamation, libel, negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement, other unlawful activities or based on other theories. For example, we have occasionally received fines for certain inappropriate materials placed by third parties on our platforms, and may be subject to similar fines and penalties in the future. In April 2019, Bilin, a mobile instant communication application of ours that contributed an insignificant portion of our total revenues, in accordance with the requirements of the Office of the Cyberspace Affairs Commission, temporarily ceased its services and is rectifying proactively. We also may face liability for copyright or trademark infringement, fraud, and other claims based on the nature and content of the materials that are delivered, shared or otherwise accessed through or published on our platforms. Defending any such actions could be costly and involve significant time and attention of our management and other resources. If they find that we have not adequately managed the content on our platforms, or if any of our platforms fails to comply with any of such provisions, PRC or other jurisdiction's authorities may impose legal sanctions on us, including, interviews held by relevant cyberspace authorities, warnings, information update suspension, and in serious cases, suspending or revoking the licenses necessary to operate our platforms, restriction from engaging in internet information services, online behavior restrictions or industry bans.

In addition, our content monitoring system may not be effective in preventing misconduct by our platform users and misuse of our platform and such misconduct or misuse may materially and adversely impact our brand image, business, financial condition and results of operations. Because we do not have full control over how and what users will use our platform to communicate, our platform may be misused by individuals or groups of individuals to engage in immoral, disrespectful, fraudulent or illegal activities. For example, we detect spam accounts through which illegal or inappropriate content is streamed or posted and illegal or fraudulent activities are conducted on a timely basis. Media reports and internet forums have covered some of these incidents, which have in some cases generated negative publicity about our platform and brand. We have implemented control procedures to detect and block illegal or inappropriate content and illegal or fraudulent activities conducted through the misuse of our platform, but such procedures may not prevent all such content from being broadcasted or posted or activities from being carried out. Moreover, as we have limited control over real-time and offline behavior of our users, to the extent such behavior is associated with our platform, our ability to protect our brand image and reputation may be limited. Our business and the public perception of our brand may be materially and adversely affected by misuse of our platform. In addition, if any of our users suffers or alleges to have suffered physical, financial or emotional harm following contact initiated on our platform or after watching unsettling or inappropriate content that our content monitoring system failed to filter out, we may face civil lawsuits or other liabilities initiated by the affected viewer, or governmental or regulatory actions against us. In response to allegations of illegal or inappropriate activities conducted through our platform or any negative media coverage about us, government authorities may intervene and hold us liable for non-compliance with relevant laws and regulations concerning the dissemination of information on the internet and subject us to administrative penalties or other sanctions, such as requiring us to restrict or discontinue some of the features and services provided on our website and mobile application, or even revoke our licenses or permits to provide internet content service. We endeavor to ensure all users are in compliance with relevant regulations, but we cannot guarantee that all users will comply with all the relevant laws and regulations. Therefore, we may be subject to investigations or subsequent penalties if content displayed on our platform is deemed to be illegal or inappropriate under relevant laws and regulations. As a result, our business may suffer and our user base, revenues and profitability may be materially and adversely affected.

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As our international operations continue to expand, we face significant challenges to ensure the content and communications on our platform are in compliance with local jurisdiction’s regulatory framework and social environment, many of which could be substantially different from that of China and each other due to the differences in, among others, the legal system, political environment, culture and religion. Such differences may impose more stringent requirements and restrictions to the content we presented and our experience gained from our operations in China may not apply to our overseas operations. In addition, the regulatory framework for live streaming, short-form video or video communication is still developing and remains uncertain in several countries where we have significant overseas operations, including but not limited to countries such as Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and India. New laws and regulations may also be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the government authorities’ attention. Considerable uncertainties still exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities in these areas. In addition, we may be required to impose more stringent content monitoring measures, be in compliance with relevant content regulatory regime, obtain relevant licenses or permits or renew or expand the coverage of our existing licenses, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or permits or make any necessary filings applicable in the future, or comply with other relevant regulatory requirements. If we fail to obtain, hold or maintain any of the required licenses or permits or make the necessary filings on time or at all, or fail to comply with other regulatory requirements, we may be subject to various penalties, including fines, discontinuation restriction of our operations as well as reputation damage. Cultural differences may also impose additional challenges to our efforts in content control. Therefore, such different and possibly more stringent regulatory and cultural environments may increase the risk exposure to our daily operations in foreign jurisdictions. We have experienced incidents in the past where our application was temporarily suspended in foreign markets due to inappropriate content being displayed on our platform. We have also received claims in connection with intellectual property infringement and entered into settlement or license agreements with third parties or are in the process of negotiating such agreements with third parties to resolve such claims. Such incidents or similar incidents related to our failure to comply with foreign laws, regulations and rules could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, global reputation and global growth efforts. Requirements of entering into license or settlement agreements may also significantly increase our costs of operations and adversely affect our business results. In addition, each foreign jurisdiction may have a different regulatory framework, implementation and enforcement for live streaming or short-form video or video communication business, which may substantially increase our compliance costs to obtain, maintain or renew requisite licenses and permits or fulfill any required administrative procedures.

The revenue model for each of our live streaming and our membership program may not remain effective, which may affect our ability to retain existing users and attract new users and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We operate our live streaming platforms using a virtual items-based revenue model whereby users can listen to music and access other forms of entertainment, participate in or watch online shows, watch shows that deliver financial news and information, and get access to the live streaming of different game plays for free, and have the option of purchasing in-channel virtual items. We have generated, and expect to continue to generate, a substantial majority of our live streaming revenues using this revenue model. In 2019, revenues from live streaming contributed 93.9% of our total net revenues. Our live streaming business has experienced significant growth in recent years, but we cannot assure you that we will continue to achieve a similar growth rate in the future, as the user demand for this service may change, decrease substantially or dissipate, or we may fail to anticipate and serve user demands effectively.

We may not be able to continue to successfully implement the virtual items-based revenue model for live streaming, as popular performers, channel owners, famous professional game teams and commentators may leave our platforms and we may be unable to attract new talent that can attract users or cause such users to increase the amount of time spent engaging and money spent on purchasing in-channel virtual items on our platforms. In addition, certain content on our live streaming platforms, such as certain online games owned by or licensed to certain gaming companies or publishers, may not continue to be available to our users for live streaming purposes. Failure to keep our users engaged in the live streaming service may result in reducing average revenue per user and the number of paying users, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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Furthermore, under our current arrangements with certain popular performers, channel owners, famous professional game teams and commentators, we share with them a portion of the revenues we derive from the sales of in-channel virtual items on our live streaming platform. We also cooperate with popular professional game teams and commentators to make their game plays available on our platforms by paying them fixed sponsorship fees. In the future, the amount we pay to these performers, channel owners famous professional game teams and commentators may increase or we may fail to reach mutually acceptable terms with these parties, which may adversely affect our revenues or cause these parties to leave our platforms. In turn, this may affect the user and revenue growth in this business, which may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we have been a pioneer in offering an online concert platform to music performers and YY Live users. We also continue to focus on the development of professionally-curated user generated content, or PUGC, and professionally generated content, or PGC, as well as introducing more sports content on our platforms. However, if our users decide to access live streaming content provided by our current or future competitors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

In our membership program, users pay a flat monthly subscription fee in order to become members, and in exchange, we give them access to various privileges and enhanced features on our channels, including additional video usage, priority entrance to certain live performances, and exclusive rights to access VIP avatars, VIP ring-tones, VIP fonts and VIP emoticons. However, we may not be able to further build or maintain our membership base in the future for various reasons—for example, if we fail to continue to provide innovative products and services that are attractive to members, we may not be able to retain them and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We generate a portion of our revenues from online advertising. If we fail to attract more advertisers to our platforms or if advertisers are less willing to advertise with us, our revenues may be adversely affected.

We generate a portion of our revenues from online advertising. Although we have become less dependent upon online advertising revenues due to a shift in the majority of our revenues from online advertising to live streaming service, our revenues still partly depend on the continual development of the online advertising industry in China and advertisers’ allocation of budgets to internet advertising. In addition, companies that decide to advertise or promote online may utilize more established methods or channels for online advertising, such as more established Chinese internet portals or search engines, over advertising on our platforms. If the online advertising market size does not increase from current levels, or if we are unable to capture and retain a sufficient share of that market, our ability to maintain or increase our current level of online advertising revenues and our profitability and prospects could be adversely affected.

We offer advertising services substantially through contracts entered into with third party advertising agencies and by way of displaying advertisement on our websites and platforms or providing promotion integrated into the programs, shows or other content offered on our video content platforms. We cannot assure you that we will be able to retain existing direct advertisers or advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and advertising agencies. Since our arrangements with third party advertising agencies typically involve one-year framework agreements, these advertising arrangements may be easily amended or terminated without incurring liabilities. If we fail to retain existing advertisers and advertising agencies or attract new direct advertisers and direct advertising agencies or any of our current advertising methods or promotion activities become less effective, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

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Our business is subject to a variety of PRC and international laws, regulations, rules, policies and other obligations regarding data privacy and protection. Any losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information or personal data could subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal and operational consequences.

Our business requires us to collect, use, store and otherwise process confidential information, including, among other things, personally identifiable information, or PII, with respect to our users and employees. We are subject to PRC and international laws, and regulations, and additional laws and regulations as our overseas expansion evolves, relating to the collection, use, retention, security, transfer or otherwise processing of PII. In many cases, these laws and regulations not only apply to third-party transactions, but also may restrict transfers of PII among us and our international subsidiaries. Several jurisdictions have passed laws in this area, and other jurisdictions are considering imposing additional and possibly more stringent restrictions. These laws continue to develop and may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with emerging and changing international requirements may cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices. Non-compliance could result in significant penalties or legal liability as well as reputational harm. Foreign data protection, privacy, and other laws and regulations, including those in Europe and the U.S., may impose varying obligations or be more restrictive than those in China. Regulatory authorities around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. These legislative and regulatory proposals, if adopted, and such interpretations could, in addition to the possibility of fines and reputational harm, result in an order requiring that we change our data practices, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Complying with these various laws could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business.

Recent legal developments in Europe have created compliance uncertainty regarding the processing of personal data. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which came into application in the European Union, or EU, on May 25, 2018, applies to all of our activities conducted from an establishment in the EU or related to products and services that we offer to EU users. The GDPR creates significant new requirements regarding the protection of personal data and significantly increases the financial penalties for noncompliance. We may be considered in violation of the GDPR and thus be required to adopt additional measures in the future. If we fail to comply with the requirements stipulated by the GDPR in a timely manner, or at all, we may be subject to significant penalties and fines, which may in turn adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and operating results.

In addition to the new requirements imposed by the GDPR, the privacy requirements and expectations created in the EU by the GDPR are stricter than those in China. These requirements include rules restricting the flow of data across borders. These restrictions may cause companies to localize data, decline to make use of services provided by our customers in China, and otherwise impact the use of our services.

Additionally, California recently enacted legislation that has been dubbed the first “GDPR-like” law in the U.S. Known as the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, it creates new individual privacy rights for consumers (as that word is broadly defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, requires covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and provides such consumers new ways to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the U.S., which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business.

Furthermore, we may also be subject to the Information Technology Act 2000 of India, which primarily provides for (i) civil liability to compensate for wrongful loss or gain to any person arising from negligence in implementing and maintaining reasonable security practices and procedures with respect to sensitive personal data or information that we possess, deal with or handle in our computer systems, networks, databases and software, and (ii) criminal punishment if, in the course of performing a contract, a service provider discloses personal information without the consent of the person concerned or is in breach of a lawful contract and does so with the intention to cause, or knowing it is likely to cause, wrongful loss or wrongful gain. As our overseas expansion evolves, we may, from time to time, be subject to data protection regulations from other jurisdictions, which may impose additional and more stringent requirements. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Overseas Regulations—Regulations on Data Privacy and Protection.”

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We make statements about our use and disclosure of PII through our privacy policy, information provided on our internet platform and press statements. Any failure by us to comply with these public statements or with other PRC or international privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In addition to reputational impacts, penalties could include ongoing audit requirements and significant legal liability. None of the data security measures can provide absolute security, and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of confidential information, in particular PII, may still occur, which could materially and adversely affect our reputation, financial condition and operating results.

From time to time, concerns may be expressed about whether our products, services, or processes compromise the privacy of users, customers, and others. Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of PII or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and adversely affect our operating results.

Our business and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19

In late January 2020, in response to intensifying efforts to contain the spread of the coronavirus, the Chinese government took a number of actions, which included extending the Chinese New Year holidays, quarantining and treating individuals in mainland China who had COVID-19, asking mainland China residents to remain at home and to avoid gathering in public, and other actions. In February and March 2020, increasingly numbers of additional cases were confirmed in many other countries and regions around the world. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. Many countries have implemented drastic measures, including but not limited to travel bans, closing of boarders and military interventions, to help contain the spread of the virus. The accelerated spread of the virus globally has caused extreme volatility in the global financial market, including the repeated triggering of stock market “circuit breakers” in the U.S. and many other countries. While many of the restrictions on movement within China have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there is great uncertainty as to the future progress of the disease. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific anti-viral treatment for COVID-19. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the reimposition of restrictions.

The outbreak has affected the activity level of certain users and broadcasters on our social media platforms, particularly those who are interested in, or rely on, offline activities and offline venues. In addition, a number of entertainment events in China and other countries and regions have been cancelled, delayed or otherwise disrupted, and we devoted substantial resources to make necessary adjustment to the related plans. The coronavirus outbreak also negatively affected various other aspects of our business operations. Our operations in China and overseas markets have and may continue to experience disruptions, such as temporary closure of our offices and/or those of our partners or suppliers, suspension or delay of services, and travel restrictions and limits on access to public venues. We have corporate offices in several cities in China and other parts of the world that have been significantly affected by the outbreak, including but not limited to Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore. In addition, we also have representative offices in a number of countries that have been affected by the pandemic. Our offline operations in those regions have also been affected to varying degrees. Our business partners have also been affected by the outbreak of COVID-19, and performance of their obligations under our arrangements with them may be delayed or otherwise disrupted. As a result of any of the above developments, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by the coronavirus outbreak. We will closely monitor the further developments of the COVID-19 outbreak. The full extent to which the COVID-19 outbreak impacts our businesses and results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the coronavirus, and the actions to contain the coronavirus and the impact on the global and Chinese financial market and economy, among others.

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We have granted employee stock options and other share-based awards in the past and are very likely to continue to do so in the future. We recognize share-based compensation expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP, which have had and may continue to have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

We have granted share-based compensation awards, including share options, restricted shares and restricted share units, to various employees, key personnel and other non-employees to incentivize performance and align their interests with ours. Under our 2009 employee equity incentive scheme, or the 2009 Scheme, we are authorized to grant options or restricted shares to purchase a maximum of 120,020,001 common shares. Under our 2011 share incentive plan, or the 2011 Plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted shares or restricted share units to purchase a maximum of 43,000,000 common shares, plus an annual increase of 20,000,000 common shares on the first day of each fiscal year, beginning from 2013, or such smaller number of Class A common shares as determined by our board of directors. In March 2019, we adopted our 2019 Share Incentive Awards Arrangement, or the 2019 Arrangement, which reserved 65,922,045 Class A common shares of ours for incentive awards for Bigo's employees. As of March 31, 2020, options to purchase 10,307,400 Class A common shares, 37,126,854 restricted shares and 42,730,079 restricted share units were outstanding under the 2009 Scheme, the 2011 Plan and the 2019 Arrangement. As a result of these grants and potential future grants, we had incurred in the past and expect to continue to incur significant share-based compensation expenses in the future. The amount of these expenses is based on the fair value of the share-based awards. We account for compensation costs for certain share-based compensation awards granted in the past using a graded-vesting method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with the relevant rules under U.S. GAAP. The expenses associated with share-based compensation materially increased our net losses or reduced our net income in the past, and may reduce our net income in the future. In addition, any additional securities issued under share-based compensation schemes will dilute the ownership interests of our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs. However, if we limit the scope of the share-based compensation schemes, we may not be able to attract or retain key personnel who expect to be compensated by options, restricted shares or restricted share units.

The number of mobile active users we have may fluctuate and we may fail to attract more paying users, which may materially and adversely affect our revenues growth, results of operations and financial condition.

The total number of our mobile average monthly active users across our various platforms has increased significantly in recent years. However, the number of our mobile monthly active users may substantially fluctuate from time to time. If we are unable to attract new users and retain them as active users and convert non-paying active users into paying users, our revenues may fail to grow and our results of operations and financial condition may suffer.

We may not be able to keep our users highly engaged, which may reduce our monetization opportunities and materially and adversely affect our revenues, profitability and prospects.

Our success depends on our ability to maintain and grow our user base and keep our users highly engaged. In order to attract and retain users and remain competitive, we must continue to innovate our products and services, implement new technologies and functionalities and improve the features of our platforms in order to entice users to use our products and services more frequently and for longer durations.

The internet industry is characterized by constant changes, including rapid technological evolution, continual shifts in customer demands, frequent introductions of new products and services and constant emergence of new industry standards and practices. Thus our success will depend, in part, on our ability to respond to these changes on a cost-effective and timely basis; failure to do so may cause our user base to shrink and user engagement level to decline and our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected. For example, our plan to more broadly support mobile-live broadcasting across our live streaming platform and retain the ability to offer high quality delivery of voice and video data may cause us to incur significant additional costs and may not succeed.

Due to the intensified competitions among video content platforms, users may leave us for competitors’ platforms more quickly than in other online sectors. A decrease in the number of our active users may reduce the diversity and vibrancy of our platforms’ online ecosystem and affect our user-generated channels, which may in turn reduce our monetization opportunities and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We cannot assure you that our platforms will continue to be sufficiently popular with our users to offset the costs incurred to operate and expand it. Our sales and marketing expenses may significantly increase in the future, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. Failure to maintain or grow our user base in a cost-effective manner, or at all, and keep our users highly engaged would materially and negatively affect our results of operations.

We face competition in several major aspects of our business. If we fail to compete effectively, we may lose users and advertisers which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face competition in several major aspects of our business, particularly from companies that provide social media services. Some of our competitors may have longer operating histories and significantly greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do, and in turn may have an advantage in attracting and retaining users and advertisers. In addition, competitors in some areas of our business may have significantly larger user bases and more established brand names than we do and may be able to more effectively leverage their user bases and brand names to provide live streaming, social media, internet communication, and other products and services, and thereby increase their respective market shares. We may also face potential competition from global social media service providers that seek to enter the China market, whether independently or through the formation of alliances with, or acquisition of, PRC domestic internet companies.

In relation to our live streaming business, our competitors primarily include Kuaishou, Douyin, Tencent Music Entertainment, Momo, Douyu and other live streaming platforms in China, and other short-form video and live streaming platforms overseas such as TikTok. We also compete for online advertising revenues with other internet companies that sell online advertising services in China.

If we are not able to effectively compete in any of our lines of business, our overall user base and level of user engagement may decrease, which could reduce our paying users or make us less attractive to advertisers. We may be required to spend additional resources to further increase our brand recognition and promote our products and services, and such additional spending could adversely affect our profitability. Furthermore, if we are involved in disputes with any of our competitors that result in negative publicity to us, such disputes, regardless of their veracity or outcome, may harm our reputation or brand image and in turn lead to reduced number of users and advertisers. Any legal proceedings or measures we take in response to such disputes may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations and divert our management’s attention.

Our competitors may unilaterally decide to adopt a wide range of measures targeted at us, including possibly designing their products to negatively impact our operations, such as sending virus-like programs to attack elements of our platforms. Some competitors may also make their applications incompatible with ours, effectively requiring users to either stop using our competitors’ products or uninstall our products, leading to a reduction in our number of users.

Spammers and malicious applications may affect user experience, which could reduce our ability to attract users and advertisers and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Spammers may use our platforms to send targeted and untargeted spam messages to users, which may affect user experience. As a result, our users may use our products and services less or stop using them altogether. In spamming activities, spammers typically create multiple user accounts for the purpose of sending spam messages. Although we attempt to identify and delete accounts created for spamming purposes, we may not be able to effectively eliminate all spam messages from our platforms in a timely fashion. Any spamming activities could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We use third party services and technologies in connection with our business, and any disruption to the provision of these services and technologies to us could result in adverse publicity and a slowdown in the growth of our users, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends upon services provided by, and relationships with, third parties. If we are unable to retain or attract popular talents such as performers, channel managers, professional game players, commentators and hosts for our live streaming platform or if these talents cannot draw fans or participants, our results of operations may be adversely affected. Also, if channel owners are unable to reach or maintain mutually satisfactory cooperation arrangements with the performers on their channels on our live streaming platform, we may lose popular performers and our business and operations may be adversely affected. Furthermore, if we are unable to obtain or retain rights to host popular online games or popular in-game virtual items, or if we are required to share a bigger portion of our revenues with third party game developers, we could be required to devote greater resources and time to obtain hosting rights for new games and applications from other parties, and our results of operations may be impacted. In addition, some third party software we use in our operations are currently publicly available without charge. If the owner of any such software decides to charge users or no longer makes the software publicly available, we may need to incur significant cost to license the software, find replacement software or develop alternative software. If we are unable to find or develop replacement software at a reasonable cost, or at all, our business and operations may be adversely affected.

Some of the services offered by us run on a complex network of servers located in and maintained by third party data centers throughout China and our overall network relies on broadband connections provided by third party operators. We expect this dependence on third parties to continue. The networks maintained and services provided by such third parties are vulnerable to damage or interruption, which could impact our results of operations. See “—System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.”

Furthermore, we generate substantially all of our online advertising revenues through agreements entered into with various third party advertising agencies that represent advertisers. We do not have long-term cooperation agreements or exclusive arrangements with these agencies and they may elect to direct business opportunities to other advertising service providers. If we fail to retain and enhance our business relationships with these third party advertising agencies, we may suffer from a loss of advertisers and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

In addition, we sell a significant portion of our products and services through third party online payment systems. If any of these third party online payment systems suffer from security breaches, users may lose confidence in such payment systems and refrain from purchasing our virtual items online, in which case our results of operations would be negatively impacted. See “—The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.”

We exercise no control over the third parties with whom we have business arrangements. If such third parties increase their prices, fail to provide their services effectively, terminate their service or agreements or discontinue their relationships with us, we could suffer service interruptions, reduced revenues or increased costs, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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System failure, interruptions and downtime can result in adverse publicity for our products and result in net revenue losses, a slowdown in the growth of our registered user accounts and a decrease in the number of our active users. If any of these system disruptions occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Although we seek to reduce the possibility of disruptions or other outages, our services may be disrupted by problems with our own technology and system, such as malfunctions in our software or other facilities and network overload. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from telecommunication failures, power loss, computer attacks or viruses, earthquakes, floods, fires, terrorist attacks and similar events. We have experienced system failures. Those responsible were subsequently found guilty and penalized by the PRC courts and we have subsequently updated our system to make it more difficult for similar attacks to succeed in the future, but we cannot assure you that there will be no similar failures in the future. Parts of our system are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for all eventualities. Despite any precaution we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems at our hosting facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in the availability of our products and services. Any interruption in the ability of our users to use our products and services could reduce our future revenues, harm our future profits, subject us to regulatory scrutiny and lead users to seek alternative forms of online social interactions.

Our servers that process user payments experience some downtime on a regular basis, which may negatively affect our brand and user perception of the reliability of our systems. Any scheduled or unscheduled interruption in the ability of users to use our payment systems could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues.

Almost all internet access in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the control and supervision of the MIIT, and we use a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and internet data centers to host our servers. Internet data centers in China are generally owned by telecommunication service providers with their own broadband networks and are leased to various customers through third party agents. These third party agents negotiate the terms of the leases, enter into lease agreements with end customers, handle customer interactions and manage the data centers on behalf of the data center owners. In the past, we signed data center lease agreements with multiple third party agents. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to purchase more bandwidth and upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our websites and increasing user levels on our platforms overall. We cannot assure you that the telecommunications providers whose networks we lease or the third party agents that operate our data centers would be able to accommodate all of our requests for more bandwidth or upgraded infrastructure or network, or that the internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in our internet usage.

Our users may use our products or services for critical transactions and communications, especially business communications. As a result, any system failures could result in damage to such users’ businesses. These users could seek significant compensation from us for their losses. Even if unsuccessful, this type of claim would likely be time consuming and costly for us to address.

We have limited control over the prices of the services provided by telecommunication service providers and may have limited access to alternative networks or services. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, if internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

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The respective number of our registered user accounts, active users and paying users may overstate the number of unique individuals who register to use our products and services, log on to our platforms, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platforms or access Duowan.com, respectively, and may therefore lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric and of our business operations by our management and by investors, and may affect advertisers’ decisions on the amount spent on advertising with us.

Pursuant to the Provisions on Administration over the Internet User Public Account Information Services, which was promulgated by the State Internet Information Office on September 7, 2017 and became effective on October 8, 2017, we have required all of our users who publish information via our platform to provide the identity information and mobile phone number, but users who do not publish or release information via our platform are not required or obligated to undergo real-name verification under the current valid regulation. Therefore we cannot and do not track all the number of unique paying users. Instead, we track the number of registered user accounts, active users and paying users. We calculate certain operating metrics in the following ways: (a) the number of registered user accounts is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have logged onto our platforms at least once after registration, (b) the number of active users is the cumulative number of user accounts at the end of the relevant period that have signed onto our platforms at least once during the relevant period, and (c) the number of paying users is the cumulative number of registered user accounts that have purchased virtual items or other products and services on our platforms at least once during the relevant period. The actual number of unique individual users, however, is likely to be lower than that of registered user accounts, active users and paying users, potentially significantly, for three primary reasons. First, each individual user may register more than once and therefore have more than one account, and sign onto each of these accounts during a given period. For example, a user may (a) create separate accounts for community and personal use and log onto each account at different times for different activities or (b) if he or she lost his or her original username or password, he or she can simply register again and create an additional account. Second, we experience irregular registration activities such as the creation of a significant number of improper user accounts by a limited number of individuals, which may be in violation of our policies, including for the purpose of clogging our network or posting spam to our channels. We believe that some of these accounts may also be created for specific purposes such as to increase the number of votes for certain performers in various contests, but the number of registered user accounts, paying users and active users do not exclude user accounts created for such purposes. We have limited ability to validate or confirm the accuracy of information provided during the user registration process to ascertain whether a new user account created was actually created by an existing user who is registering duplicative accounts. Thus, the respective number of our registered user accounts, active users and paying users may overstate the number of unique individuals who register on our platforms, sign onto our platforms, purchase virtual items or other products and services on our platforms and access Duowan.com, respectively which may lead to an inaccurate interpretation of our average revenue per paying user metric.

In addition, we may be unable to track whether we are successfully converting registered users or active users into paying users since we do not track the number of unique individuals or operate our platforms on a real-name basis. If the growth in the number of our registered user accounts, active users or paying users is lower than the actual growth in the number of unique individual registered, active or paying users, our user engagement level, sales and our business may not grow as quickly as we expect, and advertisers may reduce the amount spent on advertising with us, which may harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, such overstatement may cause inaccurate evaluation of our business operations by our management and by investors, which may also materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to continue to successfully capture and retain the growing number of users that access internet services through mobile devices or successfully monetize mobile users, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

An increasing number of users are accessing our platforms through mobile devices, and we consider the rise of mobile-based business to be a general trend. We have been taking measures to expand our success from PC-based products and services to the mobile platform. In 2010, we introduced Mobile YY, our music and entertainment mobile application. In the second half of 2016, along with our transition into a live streaming platform, we rebranded Mobile YY into YY Live APP, a mobile application for our YY Live platform. In addition, we have launched several other mobile applications over the years, including, among others, Bigo for global livestreaming services and Hago for casual game-oriented social networking services. We have also developed numerous mobile applications for other parts of our business. An important element of our strategy is to continue to develop and enhance mobile applications to capture a greater share of the growing number of mobile users.

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Nevertheless, since the user experience and user habits on mobile devices are significantly different from those on PCs, there can be no assurance that we can succeed in adapting our products and services to the expectation of mobile users. If we are unable to attract and retain the increasing number of mobile users, or if we are slower than our competitors in developing attractive services adaptable for mobile devices, we may fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market or may lose existing users. In addition, even if we are able to retain the increasing number of mobile users, we may not be able to successfully monetize them in the future. For example, because of the inherent limitations of mobile devices, such as a smaller display screen space as compared to PCs, we may not be able to provide as many kinds of virtual items on our mobile applications as we can on YY Client, which may limit the monetization potential of mobile users.

Furthermore, as new mobile devices and operating systems are continually being released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing and updating versions of our products and services for use on these devices and operating systems, and we have devoted, and expect to continue to devote, significant resources to create, support and maintain these services. Devices providing access to our products and services are not manufactured and sold by us, and we cannot assure you that companies manufacturing or selling these devices would always ensure that their devices perform reliably and are maximally compatible with our systems. Any faulty connection between these devices and our products and services may result in consumer dissatisfaction with us, which could damage our brand and have a material and adverse effect on our financial results. In addition, the lower resolution, functionality and memory associated with some mobile devices make the use of our products and services through such devices more difficult and the versions of our products and services we develop for these devices may fail to attract users. Manufacturers or distributors may establish unique technical standards for their devices and, as a result, our mobile applications may not work or be viewable on these devices. Meanwhile, new social platforms or services may emerge which are specifically created to function on mobile operating systems, whereas our platforms were originally designed to be accessed from PCs. Such new entrants may operate more effectively on mobile devices than our mobile applications do.

Due to the increasing importance of mobile-based business, any of the above may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The development of mobile technologies and applications as a substitute for PC-based technology and applications may adversely affect our existing business, and in turn our revenues and financial performance.

In recent years, the development of mobile technologies and applications, such as increased speed and stability of mobile network and enhancement of mobile devices, allows performers, content providers and other users to broadcast simply with a mobile device instead of relying on PC-based or other more complicated devices. Due to the portability and affordability of mobile devices, mobile live streaming is more diversified and spontaneous as compared to online live streaming on PC-based platforms. We believe that such innovation brings opportunities as well as challenges for our business.

Although we believe that our mobile application has some unique features and is competitive in the market, the industry is new and we expect the competition to be intensive. Since mobile live steaming is more diversified and spontaneous, our experience in content organization and interaction on PC platforms may not satisfy the mobile users, and hence, we may fail to attract or retain such mobile users.

Although we believe that users, including performers, are unlikely to entirely migrate to mobile applications and cease to use YY Live through PCs and that most of our mobile users also access our platforms through PCs, we cannot assure you that the increasing usage of mobile applications will not cause our users to cease accessing our platforms from PCs. If a significant number of users migrate to mobile applications as a substitute for accessing our platforms through PCs, or even turn to use mobile applications developed by our competitors, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be negatively affected.

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Concerns about collection and use of personal data could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our products and services, which could lead to lower revenues.

Concerns about our practices with regard to the collection, use or disclosure of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and operating results. We apply strict management and protection for any information provided by users and, under our privacy policy, without our users’ prior consent, we will not provide any of our users’ personal information to any unrelated third party. While we strive to comply with our privacy guidelines as well as all applicable data protection laws and regulations, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against us by government entities or others, and could damage our reputation. User and regulatory attitudes towards privacy are evolving, and future regulatory or user concerns about the extent to which personal information is used or shared with advertisers or others may adversely affect our ability to share certain data with advertisers, which may limit certain methods of targeted advertising. Concerns about the security of personal data could also lead to a decline in general internet usage, which could lead to lower registered, active or paying user numbers on our platforms. See “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies.” A significant reduction in registered, active or paying user numbers could lead to lower revenues, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of operations of, and fees charged by, third party online payment platforms may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Currently, we sell almost all of our products and services to our users through third party online payment systems. We expect that an increasing amount of our sales will be conducted over the internet as a result of the growing use of online payment systems. In all these online payment transactions, secured transmission of confidential information such as customers’ credit card numbers and personal information over public networks is essential to maintain consumer confidence.

We do not have control over the security measures of our third party online payment vendors, and security breaches of the online payment systems that we use could expose us to litigation and possible liability for failing to secure confidential customer information and could, among other things, damage our reputation and the perceived security of all of the online payment systems that we use. If a well-publicized internet or mobile network security breach were to occur, users concerned about the security of their online financial transactions may become reluctant to purchase our virtual items even if the publicized breach did not involve payment systems or methods used by us. In addition, there may be billing software errors that would damage customer confidence in these online payment systems. If any of the above were to occur and damage our reputation or the perceived security of the online payment systems we use, we may lose paying users and users may be discouraged from purchasing our services, which may have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, there are currently only a limited number of third party online payment systems in China. If any of these major payment systems decides to cease to provide services to us, or significantly increase the percentage they charge us for using their payment systems for our virtual items and other services, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our core values of focusing on user experience and satisfaction first and acting for the long-term may conflict with the short-term operating results of our business, and also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties.

One of our core values is to focus on user experience and satisfaction, which we believe is essential to our success and serves the best, long-term interests of our company and our shareholders. Therefore, we have made, and may make in the future, significant investments or changes in strategy that we think will benefit our users, even if our decision negatively impacts our operating results in the short term. In addition, this philosophy of putting our users first may also negatively impact our relationships with advertisers or other third parties, and may not result in the long-term benefits that we expect, in which case the success of our business and operating results could be harmed.

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We may not realize all of the anticipated benefits of our acquisition of Bigo or those benefits may take longer to realize than expected. We may also encounter significant unexpected difficulties in integrating these businesses.

Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Bigo depends, to a large extent, on our ability to integrate Bigo’s businesses with the rest of our businesses. The combination of previously independent businesses is a complex, costly and time-consuming process. As a result, we have and will continue to devote significant management attention and resources to integrating Bigo’s practices and operations. If implemented ineffectively or if impacted by unforeseen negative economic or market conditions or other factors, we may not realize the full anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Bigo. Our failure to meet the challenges involved in realizing the anticipated benefits of the acquisition of Bigo could cause an interruption of, or a loss of momentum in, our activities and could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, the overall integration of the businesses may result in material unanticipated problems, expenses, liabilities, competitive responses, and diversion of management’s attention. The difficulties of combining the operations of the companies include, among others:

     the diversion of management’s attention to integration matters;

     difficulties in achieving anticipated business opportunities and growth prospects from combining the businesses of Bigo with the rest of our businesses;

     difficulties in the integration of operations and systems;

     difficulties in managing the expanded operations of a larger and more complex company;

     challenges in international expansion and complex legal, regulatory and cultural regimes internationally; and

     challenges in attracting and retaining key personnel.

Many of these factors will be outside of our control and any one of them could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially impact the business, financial condition and results of our operations. In addition, we may not realize the full benefits of the acquisition of Bigo, including the growth opportunities that we expect. These benefits may not be achieved within the anticipated timeframe. Furthermore, additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in the integration of the businesses. All of these factors could decrease or delay the expected benefits of the acquisition of Bigo and negatively impact us. As a result, we cannot assure you that the combination of Bigo’s businesses with the rest of our businesses will result in the realization of the full benefits anticipated from the acquisition of Bigo.

We have limited experience in international markets. If we fail to meet the challenges presented by our increasingly globalized operations, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We have limited experience in international markets and we expect to enter into and expand our operations in international markets, primarily leveraging Bigo's existing products and operations. Bigo's businesses have footprint around the world, primarily including Southeast Asia, the Middle East, the U.S. and South Asia. Global expansion is a key growth strategy for us, which exposes us to a number of risks, including:

     compliance with applicable foreign laws and regulations, including but not limited to internet content provider licenses and other applicable licenses or governmental authorizations;

     policies that increase restrictions on our ability to invest in foreign jurisdictions, especially in the telecommunication and internet sectors;

     challenges in identifying appropriate local business partners and establishing and maintaining good working relationships with them. Our business partners primarily include popular talents and their agencies, third parties that promote our platform and applications and third parties that provide us technology support;

     challenges in obtaining and maintaining sufficient intellectual property protection and rights;

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     challenges in commercializing Bigo’s platforms in international markets without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties;

     challenges in formulating effective marketing strategies targeting users from various jurisdictions and cultures, who have a diverse range of preferences and demands;

     lack of acceptance of our product and service offerings, and challenges of localizing our offerings to appeal to local tastes;

     challenges in replicating or adapting our company policies and procedures to operating environments different from that of China, including technology infrastructure;

     challengers in meeting local advertiser demands as well as online marketing practices and conventions;

     differences in user and advertiser reception and perception of Bigo's applications internationally;

     challenges in managing compliance with local labor regulations and risks associated with labor dispute across different overseas jurisdictions;

     fluctuations in currency exchange rates;

     increased competition with local players in different markets and sub-markets;

     political instability and general economic or political conditions in particular countries or regions, including territorial or trade disputes, war and terrorism;

     exposure to different tax jurisdictions that may subject us to greater fluctuations in our effective tax rate and assessments in multiple jurisdictions on various tax-related assertions, including transfer pricing adjustments and permanent establishment;

     challenges of maintaining efficient and consolidated internal systems, including information technology infrastructure, and of achieving customization and integration of these systems;

     compliance with privacy laws and data security laws, including heightened restrictions and barriers on the transfer of data between different jurisdictions; and

     increased costs associated with doing business in foreign jurisdictions.

There is no assurance we will be able to manage these risks and challenges as we continue to grow our international businesses. Failure to manage these risks and challenges could negatively affect our ability to expand our international and cross-border businesses and operations as well as materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We face risks and uncertainties to comply with the laws, regulations and rules in various aspects in overseas jurisdictions. Failure to comply with such applicable laws, regulations and rules may subject our overseas operations to strict scrutiny by local authorities, which in turn may materially and adversely affect our globalized operations.

As we expand our operations in additional emerging markets and regions, we may have to adapt our business models or operations to the local markets due to various legal requirements and market conditions. Our international operations and expansion efforts may result in increased costs and are subject to various risks, including difficulties in obtaining licenses, permits or other applicable governmental authorizations, content control from local authorities, uncertain enforcement of intellectual property rights, potential claims of intellectual property infringement, the complexity of compliance with foreign laws and regulations and cultural differences. Compliance with applicable foreign laws, regulations and rules related to matters that are central to our business, including those related to live streaming services, content restrictions, data privacy, virtual items, anti-corruption laws, anti-money laundry and minors protection, increases the costs and risk exposure of doing business in foreign jurisdictions. In some cases, compliance with the laws and regulations of one country could violate the laws and regulations of another country. As our globalized operations evolve, we cannot assure you that we are able to fully comply with the legal requirements of each foreign jurisdiction and successfully adapt our business models to local market conditions. Due to the complexity involved in our overseas business expansion, we cannot assure you that we are in compliance with all local laws or regulations, including license requirements, or that our existing licenses will be successfully renewed or expanded to cover all of our areas of operations.

Registered trademarks, purchased internet search engine keywords and registered domain names of third parties that are similar to our trademarks, brands or domain names could cause confusion to our users, divert online customers away from our products and services or harm our reputation.

Competitors and other third parties may register trademarks or domain names that are similar to our trademarks or domain names or purchase keywords that are confusingly similar to our brands or websites in internet search engine advertising programs and in the header and text of the resulting sponsored links or advertisements in order to divert potential customers from us to their websites. Preventing such activity is inherently difficult. If we are unable to prevent such activity, competitors and other third parties may continue to drive potential online customers away from our platforms to competing, irrelevant or potentially offensive platforms, which could harm our reputation and cause us to lose revenue.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other claims or allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.

Third party owners or right holders of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and website content may assert intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other claims against us. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our platforms without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property rights of third parties. However, we may not be aware that our platforms are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating third-party intellectual property rights and such third parties may bring claims alleging such infringement, misappropriation or violation. In addition, content generated through our platforms, including real-time content, may also potentially cause disputes regarding content ownership or intellectual property rights. For example, we could face copyright infringement claims with respect to songs performed live, recorded or made accessible and online games being streamed live, recorded or made accessible on our video content platforms.

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The validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights in internet-related industries, particularly in China, are uncertain and still evolving. As we face increasing competition and as litigation becomes a more common way to resolve disputes in China, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims. For example, Guangzhou NetEase Computer System Co., Ltd., or NetEase, has initiated a lawsuit against us in Guangzhou in October 2014, claiming the infringement of its rights of reproduction concerning the online game of Fantasy Westward Journey in the amount of RMB100 million. In 2017, the Guangzhou Intellectual Property Court ordered us to compensate NetEase in an amount of RMB20.0 million, and both NetEase and we appealed against this judgement. In December 2019, the Higher People’s Court of Guangdong Province rejected both parties’ appeal and upheld the judgement of the Guangzhou Intellectual Property Court. We may apply for adjudication supervision from the Supreme People’s Court of PRC against the judgement. Although we believe that the claim is unjustified and commercially motivated, if our pursuit of adjudication supervision or other judicial or administrative actions are unsuccessful or the ultimate outcome of litigation is unfavorable to us, we may suffer considerable damage to our financial position and reputation. Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, and the laws and regulations of other jurisdictions in which we operate or may expand our operations, online service providers which provide storage space for users to upload works or links to other services or content could be held liable for copyright infringement under various circumstances, including situations where an online service provider knows or should reasonably have known that the relevant content uploaded or linked to on its platform infringes the copyrights of others and the provider realizes economic benefits from such infringement activities. The “knows or should reasonably have known” element would be fulfilled under some statutorily specified circumstances. For example, online service providers are subject to liability if they fail to take necessary measures, such as deletion, blocking or disconnection, after receiving notification from the legal right holders. In particular, there have been cases in China in which the courts have found an online service provider to be liable for the copyrighted content posted by users which were accessible and stored on such provider’s servers. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Intellectual Property Rights.”

We have implemented procedures to reduce the likelihood that we may use, develop or make available any content or applications without the proper licenses or necessary third party consents; such procedures include requiring performers, channel owners and users to acknowledge and agree that they would not perform or upload copyrighted content without proper authorization and that they will indemnify us for any relevant copyright infringement claims. However, these procedures may not be effective in preventing unauthorized posting or use of copyrighted content on our platforms or the infringement of third party rights. Specifically, such acknowledgments and agreements by performers, channel owners and users are not enforceable against third parties who may nevertheless file claims of copyright infringement against us. Furthermore, individual performers or channel owners who generate content on our platform that may infringe copyrights of third parties may not be easily traceable, if at all, by a plaintiff who may then choose to file a claim against us, and these individual performers and channel owners may not have resources to fully indemnify us, if at all, for any such claims. In addition, we have entered into revenue-sharing arrangements in the form of direct or indirect employment agreements with some of the popular singers, performers or channel owners on our platforms, and we cannot assure you that PRC courts will not view these singers, performers or channel owners as our employees or agents, deem us to have control over their activities on our platforms and the content they upload or otherwise make available on our platforms, determine that we have knowingly uploaded such infringing content on our platforms and hold us directly liable for their infringement activities on our platforms. Separately, as our business expands, the cost of carrying out these procedures and obtaining authorization and licenses for the growing content on our platforms and to use such content in jurisdictions into which we may expand our operations may increase, which may potentially have material and adverse effects on our results of operations.

Although we have not been subject to claims or lawsuits outside China, we cannot assure you that we will not become subject to intellectual property claims and lawsuits in other jurisdictions, such as the United States, by virtue of our ADSs being listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, the ability of users to access our platforms in the United States and other jurisdictions, the performance of songs and other content which are subject to copyright and other intellectual property laws of countries outside China, including the United States, the ownership of our ADSs by investors in the United States and other jurisdictions, or the extraterritorial application of foreign law by foreign courts or otherwise. In addition, as a publicly listed company, we may be exposed to increased risk of litigation.

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If an infringement claim brought against us in China, the United States or any other jurisdiction is successful, we may be required to pay substantial statutory penalties or other damages and fines, remove relevant content from our platforms, face injunctive relief or enter into license agreements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. We do not currently have a U.S. patent portfolio, which could reduce our ability to deter patent infringement claims from third parties, and our competitors and other third parties may now or in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. Litigation or other claims against us also subject us to adverse publicity which could harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract and retain users, including channel owners, singers and other performers, which could materially and adversely affect the popularity of our platforms and therefore, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be able to successfully halt the operations of platforms that aggregate our data as well as data from other companies, including social networks, or “copycat” platforms that have misappropriated our data in the past or may misappropriate our data in the future. Those platforms may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects on our business operations.

From time to time, third parties have misappropriated our data through scraping our platforms, robots or other means and aggregated this data on their platforms with data from other companies. In addition, “copycat” platforms or client applications have misappropriated data on our platforms, implanted Trojan viruses in user PCs or mobiles to steal user data from YY Client or other mobile applications and attempted to imitate our brand or the functionality of our platforms. When we became aware of such platforms, we employed technological and legal measures in an attempt to halt their operations. However, we may not be able to detect all such misappropriation in a timely manner and, even if we could, technological and legal measures may be insufficient to stop all such misappropriation. In those cases, our available remedies may not be adequate to protect us against such misappropriation. Regardless of whether we can successfully enforce our rights against these third parties, any measures that we may take could require significant financial or other resources from us. Those third parties may also lure away some of our users or advertisers or reduce our market share, causing material and adverse effects to our business operations.

We may not be able to prevent unauthorized use of our intellectual property, which could harm our business and competitive position.

We regard our trademarks, service marks, patents, domain names, trade secrets, proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property as critical to our success, and we rely on trademark and patent law, trade secret protection and confidentiality and license agreements with our employees and others to protect our proprietary rights. However, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. We will not be able to protect our intellectual property rights if we are unable to obtain such intellectual property rights, or enforce our rights or if we do not detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights. If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights adequately, our competitors may gain access to our proprietary technology and develop and commercialize substantially identical products, services or technologies, and our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects may be harmed. In addition, defending our intellectual property rights may entail significant expense.

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It is often difficult to obtain, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China and other jurisdictions, as compared with the United States. Patents, trademarks and service marks may be invalidated, circumvented, or challenged. Trade secrets are difficult to protect, and our trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become known or be independently discovered by others. Moreover, no assurance can be given that confidential agreements will be effective in controlling access to, distribution, use, misuse, misappropriation, reverse engineering or disclosure of our proprietary information, know-how and trade secrets. Further, these agreements may not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our platform capabilities. Confidentiality agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Even where adequate, relevant laws exist, it may not be possible to obtain swift and equitable enforcement of such laws, or to obtain enforcement of a court judgment or an arbitration award delivered in another jurisdiction, and accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or enforce agreements in China or other jurisdictions. Policing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we have taken may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our technologies. Given the potential cost, effort, risks and downsides of obtaining patent protection, in some cases we have not and do not plan to apply for patents or other forms of formal intellectual property protection for certain key technologies. If some of these technologies are later proven to be important to our business and are used by third parties without our authorization, especially for commercial purposes, our business and competitive position may be harmed. Patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret protection may not be available to us in every country in which our platforms are or become available. For example, as we have expand overseas, we may be unable to register and obtain exclusive rights to use our trademarks in certain jurisdictions. As we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying and use of our platforms will likely increase.

Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights and to protect our trade secrets. Such litigation could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management, and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Further, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property rights. Our inability to protect our proprietary technology against unauthorized copying or use, as well as any costly litigation or diversion of our management’s attention and resources, could delay further sales or the implementation of our platforms, impair the functionality of our platforms, delay introductions of our platforms, result in our substituting inferior or more costly technologies into our platforms or damage our reputation.

As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent applications may not be granted and our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

In China, the valid period of utility model patent right or design patent right is ten years and is not extendable. Our patents registered in jurisdictions outside of China are also generally subject to finite and non-extendable terms. Currently, we have patent applications pending in China and overseas, but we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications or will be granted patents based on patent applications we may file in other jurisdictions. Even if our patent applications succeed and we are issued patents in accordance with them, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. The rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with proprietary protection or competitive advantages. Further, the claims under any patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others will bar us from licensing and from exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation and subject to patent infringement lawsuits if we expand our operations into such jurisdictions. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

If we fail to maintain and enhance our brands or to effectively promote our products and acquire new users, or if we incur excessive expenses in these efforts, our business, results of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brands is of significant importance to the success of our business. Well-recognized brands are important to increasing the number of users and the level of engagement of our users and enhancing our attractiveness to advertisers. Since we operate in a highly competitive market, brand maintenance and enhancement directly affect our ability to maintain our market position.

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As we expand in the future, we may conduct various marketing and brand promotion activities using various methods to continue promoting our brands. We cannot assure you, however, that these activities will be successful or that we will be able to achieve the brand promotion effect we expect. In addition, any negative publicity in relation to our products or services, regardless of its veracity, could harm our brands and reputation.

We have sometimes received, and expect to continue to receive, complaints from users regarding the quality of the products and services we offer. Negative publicity or public complaints by users may harm our reputation and affect our ability to attract new users and retain existing users. If our users’ complaints are not addressed to their satisfaction, our reputation and our market position could be significantly harmed, which may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

We no longer consolidate the operating results of HUYA Inc., which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

In March 2018, HUYA Inc. entered into definitive agreements for its series B-2 equity financing with Linen Investment Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tencent Holdings Limited, or Tencent. Pursuant to these agreements, Tencent has a right, exercisable between March 8, 2020 and March 8, 2021, to purchase additional shares in HUYA Inc. to reach 50.1% of HUYA Inc.’s total voting power. On April 3, 2020, we transferred 16,523,819 Class B ordinary shares of HUYA to Linen Investment Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tencent for an aggregate purchase price of approximately US$262.6 million in cash, pursuant to Tencent’s exercise of its option to purchase additional shares of Huya. As a result of the closing of the share transfer, Tencent increased its voting power in Huya to 50.1% on a fully-diluted basis, or 50.9% calculated based on the total issued and outstanding shares of Huya, and will consolidate financial statements of Huya. Immediately after the share transfer, we held 68,374,463 Class B ordinary shares of Huya, representing approximately 43.0% of the total voting power calculated based on the total issued and outstanding shares of Huya. Starting from April 3, 2020 we no longer consolidate the operating results of HUYA Inc. into our financial statements, and our results of operations as shown in our financial statements may be adversely affected.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

Our future success depends substantially on the continued efforts of our executive officers and key employees. If one or more of our executive officers or key employees were unable or unwilling to continue their services with us, we might not be able to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, many of our executive officers and key employees hold the equity interests in our variable interest entities in PRC. If any of these executive officers and key employees terminates their services with us, we have the contractual right to appoint designees to hold the PRC consolidated affiliated entities’ equity interests. However, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, know-how and key professionals and staff members. Each of our executive officers and key employees has entered into an employment agreement and a non-compete agreement with us. However, as advised by our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, certain provisions under the non-compete agreement may not be deemed valid or enforceable under PRC laws. If any dispute arises between our executive officers and key employees and us, we cannot assure you that we would be able to enforce these non-compete agreements in China, where these executive officers reside, in light of uncertainties with China’s legal system. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

If we are unable to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly management, technical and marketing personnel with expertise in the internet industry; inability to do so may materially and adversely affect our business. Since the internet industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, we cannot assure you that we will be able to attract or retain qualified staff or other highly skilled employees. As our company is relatively young, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business which may materially and adversely affect our ability to grow our business and hence our results of operations.

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We may be exposed to cyber security risk.

Computer hackers, foreign governments or cyber terrorists may attempt to penetrate our network security and our website. Unauthorized access to our proprietary business information or customer data may be obtained through break-ins, sabotage, breach of our secure network by an unauthorized party, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, employee theft or misuse, breach of the security of the networks of our third party providers, or other misconduct. Because the techniques used by computer programmers who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our network security or our website change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. It is also possible that unauthorized access to customer data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by customers. We would suffer economic and reputational damages if a technical failure of our systems or a security breach compromises our user data, including identification or contact information, although there has not been any compromise in the past. Any disruption to our computer systems could have a material adverse effect on our on-site operations and ability to retain and attract users.

Our internet financing business is subject to a variety of risks.

In 2018, we started to participate in the internet financing sector in China, which contributed an insignificant portion of our total net revenues. We have launched several internet financial service products. The risk of non-payment of loans is inherent in the internet financing business and we are subject to credit risk resulting from defaults in payment for loans by our customers. Credit risks may be exacerbated in micro-credit financing because there will be relatively limited information available about the credit histories of the borrowers. We cannot assure you that our monitoring of credit risk issues and our efforts to mitigate credit risks through our credit assessment and risk management policies are or will be sufficient to result in lower delinquencies. Furthermore, our ability to manage the quality of our loan portfolio and the associated credit risks will have significant impact on the results of operations of our internet finance business. Deterioration in the overall quality of loan portfolio and the increasing exposure to credit risks may occur due to a variety of reasons, including factors beyond our control, such as a slowdown in the growth of the global or Chinese economies or a liquidity or credit crisis in the global or Chinese finance sectors, which may materially and adversely affect our businesses, operations or liquidity of our consumers or their ability to repay or roll over their debt. Any significant deterioration in the asset quality of our internet finance business and significant increase in associated credit risks may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Meanwhile, the regulatory framework for internet financing business is evolving and may remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. China's internet financing industry in general remains at a rather preliminary development stage and may not develop at the anticipated growth rate. It is possible that the PRC laws and regulations may change in ways that do not favor our development. If that happens, our internet financing business may be adversely affected. We have ceased to extend credit in our domestic internet micro-financing business since the second half of 2019, and we are in the process of collecting payments on the historical loans and have made loss provisions based on historical performances. There is no assurance we will be able to collect all the payments due to us, due to the various risks described above.

In addition, we used to conduct financing leasing business in 2018. Even though we have ceased the operations of such business for the avoidance of potential risks arising from such business, we may still be exposed to credit risks due to existing lessees' failure to repay the outstanding amounts due to us.

Our results of operations are subject to substantial quarterly and annual fluctuations due to seasonality.

We experience seasonality in our business, reflecting seasonal fluctuations in internet usage. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. For example, online user numbers tend to be lower during school holidays and certain parts of the school year, and advertising revenues tend to be lower during the Chinese New Year season, which negatively affects our cash flow for those periods. We may also experience a reduction in active users in the third quarter of each year because a significant portion of our users are students, and as the new school year begins, students access to computers and the internet are affected. Internet usage and the rate of internet growth may also be expected to decline during the summer school holidays as some students lose regular internet access. Furthermore, the number of paying users of our video content platform correlates with the marketing campaigns and promotional activities we conduct which coincide with popular western or Chinese festivals celebrated by young Chinese people, many of which are in the fourth quarter and ending with the Chinese New Year holidays which typically fall in the first quarter.

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As a result, our operating results in future quarters or years may fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors. In such event, the trading price of our ADSs would likely be materially and adversely affected. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Seasonality” for additional details regarding the effects of seasonality on our cash flow, operating performance and financial results.

Our business is sensitive to global economic conditions. A severe or prolonged downturn in the global or Chinese economy could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

COVID-19 had a severe and negative impact on the Chinese and the global economy in the first quarter of 2020. Whether this will lead to a prolonged downturn in the economy is still unknown. Even before the outbreak of COVID-19, the global macroeconomic environment was facing numerous challenges. The growth rate of the Chinese economy had already been slowing since 2010. Uncertainty about China and global economic conditions poses a risk as consumers and businesses may postpone spending in response to credit constraint, rising unemployment rate, financial market volatility, government austerity programs, negative financial news, declines in income or asset values and/or other factors. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies which had been adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. Unrest, terrorist threats and the potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There have also been concerns about the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. In particular, there is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. These worldwide and regional economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and services. Demand also could differ materially from our expectations as a result of currency fluctuations. Other factors that could influence worldwide or regional demand include changes in fuel and other energy costs, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, unemployment, labor and healthcare costs, access to credit, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors affecting consumer spending behavior. An economic downturn, whether actual or perceived, a further decrease in economic growth rates or an otherwise uncertain economic outlook in China or any other market in which we may operate could have a material adverse effect on business and consumer spending and, as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Future strategic alliances or acquisitions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.

We may enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffers negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

In addition, although we have no current acquisition plans, if appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. Past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets, exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business and decrease in our gross and net margins as a result of the consolidation of the financial results of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. In addition to possible shareholders’ approval, we may also have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud, and investor confidence in our company and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

The SEC, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, adopted rules requiring most public companies to include a management report on such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. In addition, when a company meets the SEC’s criteria, an independent registered public accounting firm must report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting.

Our management and independent registered public accounting firm have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2019. However, we cannot assure you that in the future our management or our independent registered public accounting firm will not identify material weaknesses during the Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act audit process or for other reasons. In addition, because of the inherent limitations of internal control over financial reporting, including the possibility of collusion or improper management override of controls, material misstatements due to error or fraud may not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As a result, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or should we be unable to prevent or detect material misstatements due to error or fraud on a timely basis, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which in turn could harm our business, results of operations and negatively impact the market price of our ADSs, and harm our reputation. Furthermore, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur considerable costs and to use significant management time and the other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Unauthorized third party platforms may sell virtual items we offer for free on our platforms, which may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and exert downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

We, from time to time, offer virtual items free of charge to attract users or encourage user participation in channels. Some of our users may sell or purchase such free virtual items through unauthorized third party sellers in exchange for real currency. For example, fans of a performer may pay other users to send flowers or gifts the latter have accumulated on our platforms to the performer, in order to show support and raise the popularity ranking of the performer of their choice. These unauthorized transactions are usually arranged on third party platforms which we do not and are unable to track or monitor. Accordingly, these unauthorized purchases and sales from third party sellers may affect our revenue-generating opportunities and may impede our revenue and profit growth by, among other things, reducing the revenues we could have generated and exerting downward pressure on the prices we charge for our virtual items.

We have limited business insurance coverage, so that any uninsured occurrence of business disruption may result in substantial costs to us and the diversion of our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies do in more developed economies. We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured occurrence may disrupt our business operations, require us to incur substantial costs and divert our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry

If the PRC government finds that the structure we have adopted for our business operations does not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these laws or regulations or interpretations of existing laws or regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties, including the shutting down of our platforms and our business operations.

Foreign ownership of internet-based businesses is subject to significant restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government regulates internet access, the distribution of online information and the conduct of online commerce through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. These laws and regulations also limit foreign ownership in PRC companies that provide internet information distribution services. Specifically, foreign ownership in an internet information provider or other value-added telecommunication service providers may not exceed 50%. In addition, according to the Several Opinions on the Introduction of Foreign Investment in the Cultural Industry promulgated by the Ministry of Culture, or the MOC, currently known as the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or the SARFT, the General Administration of Press and Publication, or the GAPP, currently known as the State Administration of Press Publication, Radio, Film and Television after combination of SARFT and GAPP, the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce, or the MOFCOM, in July 2005, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in or operating, among others, any internet cultural operating entities and from engaging in the business of transmitting audio-visual programs through information networks. In addition, according to the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for the Access of Foreign Investment (Edition 2019) promulgated by the National Development and Reform Commission and the MOC on June 30, 2019, other than e-commerce, domestic multiparty communication, store and forward, and call center services, the permitted foreign investment in value-added telecommunications service providers may not be more than 50%.

We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We conduct our operations in China primarily through a series of contractual arrangements entered into among our PRC subsidiaries and the respective shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert control over our major PRC consolidated affiliated entities and consolidate each of their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. All of the equity (net assets) or deficit (net liabilities) and net income (loss) of the consolidated affiliated entities are attributed to us. For a detailed description of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party—Contractual Arrangements.”

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On September 28, 2009, the GAPP, the National Copyright Administration and the National Office of Combating Pornography and Illegal Publications, jointly issued a Notice on Further Strengthening the Administration of Pre-examination and Approval of Online Games and the Examination and Approval of Imported Online Games, or Circular 13. Circular 13 restates that foreign investors are not permitted to invest in online game-operating businesses in China via wholly owned, equity joint venture or cooperative joint venture investments and expressly prohibits foreign investors from gaining control over or participating in domestic online game operators through indirect ways such as establishing other joint venture companies or entering into contractual or technical arrangements such as the variable interest entity structural arrangements we adopted for our consolidated affiliated entities. We are not aware of any companies that have adopted a corporate structure that is the same as or similar to ours having been penalized or terminated under Circular 13 since the effective date of the circular. Furthermore, the enforcement of Circular 13 is still subject to substantial uncertainty, including possible subsequent joint actions by relevant authorities in charge, such as the MOC. The Regulation on Three Provisions stipulates that the MOC is authorized to regulate the online game industry, while the GAPP is authorized to approve the publication of online games before their launch on the internet. The Interpretation on Three Provisions further provides that once an online game is launched on the internet, it will be completely under the regulation of the MOC, and that if an online game is launched on the internet without obtaining prior approval from the GAPP, the MOC, instead of the GAPP, is directly responsible for investigating the game. In the event that we, our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of the prohibition under Circular 13, the GAPP, in conjunction with the relevant regulatory authorities in charge, may impose applicable penalties, which in the most serious cases may include suspension or revocation of relevant licenses and registrations. In addition, various media sources have reported that the CSRC prepared a report proposing pre-approval by a competent central government authority of offshore listings by China-based companies with variable interest entity structures, such as ours, that operate in industry sectors subject to foreign investment restrictions. However, it is unclear whether the CSRC officially issued or submitted such a report to a higher level government authority or what any such report provides. Furthermore, the New Foreign Investment Law, which promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on March 15, 2019 and became effective on January 1, 2020, does not explicitly stipulate the contractual arrangements under the “variable interest equity” structures as a form of foreign investment. Nevertheless, we cannot assure you that there will not be any further changes in the regulatory regime in the future. For more information, please see “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the New Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.”

Based on understanding of current PRC laws, rules and regulations of our PRC counsel, Fangda Partners, our current ownership structure for our business operations, the ownership structure of our PRC subsidiaries and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, as described in this annual report on Form 20-F, are in compliance with existing PRC laws, rules and regulations. However, we were further advised by Fangda Partners that there is substantial uncertainty regarding the interpretation and application of current or future PRC laws and regulations and these laws or regulations or interpretations of these laws or regulations may change in the future. Furthermore, the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to the opinion of our PRC counsel.

If our ownership structure, contractual arrangements and businesses of our company, our PRC subsidiaries or our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, the relevant governmental authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violation, including levying fines, confiscating our income or the income of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, revoking or suspending the business licenses or operating licenses of our PRC subsidiaries or PRC consolidated affiliated entities, shutting down our servers or blocking our platforms, discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operations, requiring us to discontinue our operations, requiring us to undergo a costly and disruptive restructuring, restricting or prohibiting our use of proceeds from our initial public offering to finance our business and operations in China, and taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business. Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or our right to receive their economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate such entities.

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We rely on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders for the operation of our business, which may not be as effective as direct ownership. If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to resort to litigation to enforce our rights, which may be time-consuming, unpredictable, expensive and damaging to our operations and reputation.

Because of PRC restrictions on foreign ownership of internet-based businesses in China, we depend on contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities in which we have no ownership interest to conduct our business. These contractual arrangements are intended to provide us with effective control over these entities and allow us to obtain economic benefits from them. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities are owned directly by Mr. David Xueling Li and certain other shareholders. For additional details on these ownership interests, see “—Risks Related to Our Business—Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business operations may be severely disrupted if we lose their services” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company.” However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control as direct ownership. For example, each of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to operate our business in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. If we were the controlling shareholder of these PRC consolidated affiliated entities with direct ownership, we would be able to exercise our rights as shareholders to effect changes to their board of directors, which in turn could implement changes at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, as a legal matter, if our PRC consolidated affiliated entities or their shareholders fail to perform their obligations under these contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs to enforce such arrangements, and rely on legal remedies under PRC laws, including contract remedies, which may not be sufficient or effective. In particular, the contractual arrangements provide that any dispute arising from these arrangements will be submitted to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission for arbitration in Beijing, the ruling of which will be final and binding. The legal framework and system in China, particularly those relating to arbitration proceedings, is not as developed as other jurisdictions such as the United States. As a result, significant uncertainties relating to the enforcement of legal rights through arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings remain in China, which could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements and exert effective control over our consolidated affiliated entities. If we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, our business and operations could be severely disrupted, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and damage our reputation. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Our existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders, which may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their securities.

As of March 31, 2020, Mr. David Xueling Li, our co-founder, chairman and chief executive officer, and his affiliates, held 75.8% of the total voting power. Mr. David Xueling Li has substantial influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of any contemplated sale of our company and may reduce the price of our ADSs. In addition, Mr. Li could violate the terms of his non-compete or employment agreements with us or his legal duties by diverting business opportunities from us, resulting in our loss of corporate opportunities. These actions may take place even if they are opposed by our other shareholders.

Additionally, Mr. Jun Lei, our major shareholder who beneficially owned 7.8% of our outstanding shares as of March 31, 2020, has delegated the voting rights of the shares that he holds in our Company to Mr. Li. Mr. Lei is active in making investments in internet companies in China and currently holds direct and indirect interests in Xiaomi and iSpeak, which competes with certain of our lines of business, and other entities which may have businesses that compete with ours. Xiaomi (HKSE: 01810) is an internet company with smartphones and smart hardware connected by an IoT platform at its core, which has started offering online performance and live broadcasting services recently. iSpeak is owned by Mr. Lei in part through Kingsoft Corporation Limited, which is engaged in the research, development operation and distribution of online games, mobile games, casual game services and internet software. Mr. Lei may, in the future, acquire additional interests in businesses that directly or indirectly compete with some of our lines of business or that are our suppliers or customers. Furthermore, Mr. Lei may pursue acquisitions or make further investments in our industries which may conflict with our interests. For more information regarding the beneficial ownership of our company by our principal shareholders, see “Item 6. Directors, Senior management and Employees—E. Share Ownership.”

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We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities that are important to the operation of our business if such entities go bankrupt or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

As part of our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, such entities hold certain assets, such as patents for the proprietary technologies that are essential to the operations of our platforms and important to the operation of our business. If any one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any one of PRC consolidated affiliated entities undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the unrelated third party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our ability to enforce the equity pledge agreements between us and our PRC variable interest entities’ shareholders may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreements between our wholly owned subsidiaries in China, and the shareholders of our variable interest entities, or VIEs, each shareholder of each variable interest entities agrees to pledge its equity interests in the VIE to our subsidiary to secure the relevant VIE’s performance of their obligations under the relevant contractual arrangements. The equity interest pledges of shareholders of VIEs under these equity pledge agreements have been registered with the relevant local branch of the SAMR. The equity interest pledge agreements with each of the VIEs’ shareholders provide that the pledged equity interest shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of that VIE. However, it is possible that a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity interest pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which takes last priority among creditors.

Our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities may result in adverse tax consequences to us.

As a result of our corporate structure and the contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our PRC consolidated affiliated entities and their shareholders, we are effectively subject to PRC turnover tax on revenues generated by our subsidiaries from our contractual arrangements with our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. Such tax generally includes the PRC value added tax, or the VAT, along with related surcharges. The applicable turnover tax is determined by the nature of the transaction generating the revenues subject to taxation. The PRC enterprise income tax law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its affiliates or related parties to the relevant tax authorities. These transactions may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year during which the transactions are conducted. We may be subject to adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities were to determine that the contracts between us and our PRC consolidated affiliated entities were not on an arm’s length basis and therefore constitute a favorable transfer pricing arrangements. If this occurs, the PRC tax authorities could request that either of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities adjust its taxable income upward for PRC tax purposes. Such a pricing adjustment could adversely affect us by reducing expense deductions recorded by either PRC consolidated affiliated entities and thereby increasing these entities’ tax liabilities, which could subject these entities to late payment fees and other penalties for the underpayment of taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our PRC consolidated affiliated entities’ tax liabilities increase or if it becomes subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

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If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

The internet industry in China is highly regulated. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation.” For example, an internet information service provider shall obtain an operating license, or the ICP License, from MIIT or its local counterparts before engaging in any commercial internet information services. An online game operator must also obtain an Internet Culture Operation License from the MOC and an Internet Publishing License from the GAPP to distribute online games, in addition to filing its online games with the GAPP and the MOC. Prior to February 2016, an educational website operator shall obtain approvals from the local education authorities. Guangzhou Huaduo has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet information services, a Radio and Television Program Production and Operating Permit and an Internet Culture Operation License for online games and music products. In addition, Guangzhou Huaduo holds a valid License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs under the business classification of converging and play-on-demand service for certain kinds of internet audio-visual programs—literary, artistic and entertaining—as prescribed in the newly issued provisional categories. Bigo has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet information services, a valid License for Domestic Multi-party Communication Services, a valid Internet Culture Operation License for music products and performances, a Radio and Television Program Production and Operating Permit and a License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs. Each of Chengdu Yunbu Internet Technology Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Yunbu, Chengdu Luota Internet Technology Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Luota, and Chengdu Jiyue Internet Technology Co., Ltd., or Chengdu Jiyue, has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet information services, and an Internet Culture Operation License for music entertainment products and online performance. On October 8, 2011, Guangzhou Huaduo was granted a License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, covering the production, reproduction and publication of TV dramas, cartoons (excluding production), special subjects, special columns (excluding current political news category) and entertainment programs. On January 1, 2015, Guangzhou Huaduo was granted a License for surveying and mapping, covering online map service. On January 17, 2013 and January 16, 2014, we were granted permission by relevant authorities to provide online education content on edu.YY.com and 100.com, respectively. In the fourth quarter of 2014, we acquired Beijing Huanqiu Xingxue Technology Development Co., Ltd., or Beijing Xingxue, and Beijing Huanqiu Chuangzhi Software Co., Ltd., or Beijing Chuangzhi, which operated Edu24oL.com, an online education website that is an online vocational training and language training platform, and Beijing Xingxue held an ICP License and a Publication Operating License for the operation of Edu24ol.com. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we sold majority equity interests in Beijing Xingxue and cease to consolidate financial results of Beijing Xingxue. In addition, Zhuhai Huanju Entertainment has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet information services, an Internet Culture Operation License for online games and music products, and a License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, covering the production, reproduction and publication of broadcasting plays, TV dramas, cartoons (excluding production), special subjects, special columns (excluding current political news category) and entertainment programs. Guangzhou Jinhong Network Media Co., Ltd. has obtained a valid ICP License for provision of internet information services, an Internet Culture Operation License for animation products, online performance and online programs, a License for Production and Operation of Radio and TV Programs, a License for Publication Business, and a License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs under the business classification of converging and play-on-demand service for certain kinds of internet audio-visual programs. These licenses or permits are essential to the operation of our business and are generally subject to annual government review. However, we cannot assure you that we can successfully renew these licenses annually or that these licenses are sufficient to conduct all of our present or future business.

As we further develop and expand our video capabilities and functions domestically and internationally, we will need to obtain additional qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. In addition, with respect to specific services offered online, we or the service or content providers may be subject to additional separate qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. For financial-related content offered on our channels, we are tightening our internal review of the relevant qualifications of the content providers as instructed by the competent authorities, while complying with other statutory requirements. We cannot assure you that we or the service or content providers will be granted such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses in a timely manner or at all. Prior to the receipt of such qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses, we may be deemed as being in violation of relevant laws or regulations and be subject to penalties.

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As the internet industry in China is still at a relatively early stage of development, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the authorities’ attention. In the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities, considerable uncertainties still exist. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws and regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations. In addition, we may be required to obtain additional license or approvals, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or approvals or make all the necessary filings in the future. If we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses or approvals or make the necessary filings, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed internet activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, and if any such conflicts of interest are not resolved in our favor, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Mr. David Xueling Li and Beijing Tuda, together hold 99.5% of the equity interest in Guangzhou Huaduo and Mr. Li holds 97.7% of the equity interest in Beijing Tuda. Bilin Online is also our variable interest entity, which was acquired in August 2015 and is currently 99% held by Mr. Li. Mr. Li also owns 99.9% of Guangzhou BaiGuoYuan, and Mr. David Xueling Li, through Guangzhou Huaduo, indirectly owns 46.55% of the equity interests in Sanrenxing. Mr. Li is a co-founder and shareholder of our company. The interests of Mr. Li as the controlling shareholder of the VIEs may differ from the interests of our company as a whole, as what is in the best interests of our VIEs may not be in the best interests of our company. Similarly, two individuals from the senior management team of Bigo collectively own all equity interest of each of Chengdu Yunbu, Chengdu Luota and Chengdu Jiyue, respectively. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities will act in the best interests of our company or that conflicts of interests will be resolved in our favor. In addition, the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities may breach or cause our consolidated variable entities and their respective subsidiaries to breach or refuse to renew the existing contractual arrangements with us. Currently, we do not have existing arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities may encounter in his capacity as a shareholder or director of our VIEs, on the one hand, and as a beneficial owner or director of our company, on the other hand; provided that we could, at all times, exercise our option under the exclusive option agreement with the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities to cause them to transfer all of his equity ownership in our consolidated variable entities to a PRC entity or individual designated by us, and this new shareholder of our consolidated variable entities could then appoint a new director of our consolidated variable entities to replace the existing directors. In addition, if such conflicts of interest arise, our wholly owned PRC subsidiaries, could also, in the capacity of attorney-in-fact for the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities as provided under the relevant powers of attorney, directly appoint a new director of our consolidated variable entities to replace the existing directors. We rely on Mr. Li to comply with the laws of China, which protect contracts and provide that co-founder and chairman owe a duty of loyalty to our company and require him to avoid conflicts of interest and not to take advantage of his position for personal gains. We also rely on Mr. Li to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that directors have a duty of care and a duty of loyalty to act honestly in good faith with a view toward our best interests. However, the legal frameworks of China and the Cayman Islands do not provide guidance on resolving conflicts in the event of a conflict with another corporate governance regime. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and the shareholders of our PRC variable interest entities, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

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Implementation of the new labor laws and regulations in China may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Pursuant to the labor contract law that took effect in January 2008, its implementation rules that took effect in September 2008 and its amendment that took effect in July 2013, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees’ probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. Due to lack of detailed interpretative rules and uniform implementation practices and broad discretion of the local competent authorities, it is uncertain as to how the labor contract law and its implementation rules will affect our current employment policies and practices. Our employment policies and practices may violate the labor contract law or its implementation rules, and we may thus be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. Compliance with the labor contract law and its implementation rules may increase our operating expenses, in particular our personnel expenses. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the labor contract law and its implementation rules may also limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. On October 28, 2010, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Social Insurance Law, or the Social Insurance Law, which became effective on July 1, 2011 and amended on December 29, 2018. According to the Social Insurance Law, employees must participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance and the employers must, together with their employees or separately, pay the social insurance premiums for such employees. On July 20, 2018, General Office of the Communist Party of China and the State Council promulgated the Reform Plan for Collection and Management System of National and Local Taxes, or the Tax Reform Plan, which became effective on the same day. According to the Tax Reform Plan, all social insurance premiums, such as basic pension insurance premium, basic medical insurance premium, unemployment insurance premium, work-related injury insurance premium and maternity insurance premium, shall be collected uniformly by the relevant tax authorities starting from January 1, 2019.

We expect our labor costs to increase due to the implementation of these new laws and regulations. As the interpretation and implementation of these new laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our employment practice will at all times be deemed in full compliance with labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. If we are deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Further, labor disputes, work stoppages or slowdowns at our laboratories, patient service centers or any of our clients or suppliers could significantly disrupt our daily operation or our expansion plans and have a material adverse effect on our business.

Currently there is no law or regulation specifically governing virtual asset property rights and therefore it is not clear what liabilities, if any, online game operators may have for virtual assets.

While playing online games or participating on other activities on our platforms, players acquire and accumulate some virtual assets, such as special equipment and other accessories. Such virtual assets can be important to online game players and have monetary value and, in some cases, are sold for actual money. In practice, virtual assets can be lost for various reasons, often through unauthorized use of the game account of one user by other users and occasionally through data loss caused by a delay of network service, a network crash or hacking activities. According to the General Provisions of Civil Law, promulgated on March 15, 2017 and effected on October 1, 2017, data and virtual assets are listed as civil rights protected by laws and must be protected according to specific rules governing such matters. However, there are no PRC laws or regulations specifically governing virtual asset property rights. As a result, there is uncertainty as to who the legal owner of virtual assets is, whether and how the ownership of virtual assets is protected by law, and whether an operator of online games such as us would have any liability to game players or other interested parties (whether in contract, tort or otherwise) for loss of such virtual assets. Based on recent PRC court judgments, the courts have typically held online game operators liable for losses of virtual assets by game players, and ordered online game operators to return the lost virtual items to game players or pay damages and losses. In case of a loss of virtual assets, we may be sued by our game players or users and held liable for damages, which may negatively affect our reputation and business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Compliance with the laws or regulations governing virtual currency may result in us having to obtain additional approvals or licenses or change our current business model.

The issuance and use of “virtual currency” in the PRC has been regulated since 2007 in response to the growth of the online game industry in China. On January 25, 2007, the Ministry of Public Security, the MOC, the MIIT and the GAPP jointly issued a circular regarding online gambling which has implications for the use of virtual currency. To curtail online games that involve online gambling, as well as address concerns that virtual currency could be used for money laundering or illicit trade, the circular (a) prohibits online game operators from charging commissions in the form of virtual currency in relation to winning or losing of games; (b) requires online game operators to impose limits on use of virtual currency in guessing and betting games; (c) bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property; and (d) prohibits services that enable game players to transfer virtual currency to other players.

In February 2007, fourteen PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued a circular to further strengthen the oversight of Internet cafes and online games. In accordance with the circular, the People’s Bank of China, or PBOC, has the authority to regulate virtual currency, including: (a) setting limits on the aggregate amount of virtual currency that can be issued by online game operators and the amount of virtual currency that can be purchased by an individual; (b) stipulating that virtual currency issued by online game operators can only be used for purchasing virtual products and services within the online games and not for purchasing tangible or physical products; (c) requiring that the price for redemption of virtual currency shall not exceed the respective original purchase price; and (d) banning the trading of virtual currency.

On June 4, 2009, the MOC and the MOFCOM jointly issued a notice regarding strengthening the administration of online game virtual currency, or the Virtual Currency Notice.

We issue virtual currency to game players on our platforms for them to purchase various items to be used in online games and channels, including music channels. We are in the process of adjusting the content of our platforms but we cannot assure you that our adjustments will be sufficient to comply with the Virtual Currency Notice. Moreover, although we believe we do not offer online game virtual currency transaction services, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours. For example, certain virtual items we issue to users based on in-game milestones they achieve or time spent playing games are transferable and exchangeable for our virtual currency or the other virtual items we issue to users. If the PRC regulatory authorities deem such transfer or exchange to be a virtual currency transaction, then in addition to being deemed to be engaging in the issuance of virtual currency, we may also be deemed to be providing transaction platform services that enable the trading of such virtual currency. Simultaneously engaging in both of these activities is prohibited under the Virtual Currency Notice. In that event, we may be required to cease either our virtual currency issuance activities or such deemed “transaction service” activities and may be subject to certain penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, the Virtual Currency Notice prohibits online game operators from setting game features that involve the direct payment of cash or virtual currency by players for the chance to win virtual items or virtual currency based on random selection through a lucky draw, wager or lottery. The notice also prohibits game operators from issuing currency to game players through means other than purchases with legal currency. It is unclear whether these restrictions would apply to certain aspects of our online games. Although we believe that we have rectified and ceased such prohibited activities and have taken adequate measures to prevent any of the above-mentioned prohibited activities, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to ours and deem such feature as prohibited by the Virtual Currency Notice, thereby subjecting us to penalties, including mandatory corrective measures and fines. For example, we were previously fined by a local authority in Guangzhou found that our games contained lucky draws. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We face risks related to natural disasters, health epidemics, and other outbreaks, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of epidemics in China and globally. Our business operations could be disrupted if one of our employees is suspected of having contracted the H1N1 flu, avian flu, Ebola or another epidemic, since it could require our employees to be quarantined and/or our offices to be disinfected. Our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that the outbreak has any negative impact on the Chinese and global economy in general and the Chinese and global mobile internet and gaming industries in particular.

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We are also vulnerable to natural disasters and other calamities. It is possible that we may be unable to recover certain data in the event of a server failure. We cannot assure you that any backup systems will be adequate to protect us from the effects of fire, floods, typhoons, earthquakes, power loss, telecommunications failures, break-ins, war, riots, terrorist attacks or similar events. Any of the foregoing events may give rise to server interruptions, breakdowns, system failures, technology platform failures or internet failures, which could cause the loss or corruption of data or malfunctions of software or hardware as well as adversely affect our ability to provide services on our platform.

Non-compliance on the part of third parties with which we conduct business could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our number of users or the level of traffic to our platforms.

Our third party game developers or other business partners may be subject to regulatory penalties or punishments because of their regulatory compliance failures, which may disrupt our business. Although we conduct a rigid review of legal formalities and certifications before entering into contractual relationship with other businesses such as third party game developers and landlords, we cannot be certain whether such third party has or will infringe any third parties’ legal rights or violate any regulatory requirements. We regularly identify irregularities or non-compliance in the business practices of any parties with whom we pursue existing or future cooperation and we cannot assure you that any of these irregularities will be corrected in a prompt and proper manner. The legal liabilities and regulatory actions on our commercial partners may affect our business activities and reputation and in turn, our results of operations. For example, according to PRC regulations, all lease agreements are required to be registered with the local housing authorities. We presently lease properties at 60 different locations for daily operations and certain other properties serving as dormitories and canteens in China, and the landlords of some of these properties are still completing the registration of their ownership rights or the registration of our leases with the relevant authorities. Failure to complete these required registrations may expose our landlords, lessors and us to potential monetary fines. Some of our lessors have not provided us with appropriate title certificates, which may adversely affect the validity of the leases if the lessors do not have proper title. We cannot assure you that such certificates or registration will be obtained in a timely manner or at all, and in case of failures, we may be subject to monetary fines, have to relocate our offices and suffer economic losses.

In addition, we allow providers of some online services, such as online education and financial services, to establish channels on our platforms. The online service providers and the producers of content on our platforms may be required to meet specific qualifying standards, evidenced by approvals, permits or certificates, and to comply with various requirements when conducting business. We cannot predict if any non-compliance on the part of such commercial partners may cause potential liabilities to us and in turn disrupt our operations.

Intensified government regulation of the internet industry in China could restrict our ability to maintain or increase our user level or the level of user traffic to our platforms.

The PRC government has, in recent years, intensified regulation on various aspects of the internet industry in China. For example, the PRC government adopted more stringent policies to monitor the online game industry due to adverse public reaction to perceived addiction to online games, particularly in children and minors. On April 15, 2007, eight PRC government authorities, including the GAPP, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Public Security and the MIIT issued a notice requiring all Chinese online game operators to adopt an “anti-fatigue system” in an effort to curb addiction to online games by minors. To help game operators identify which game players are minors, online game players in China are now required to register their names and identity card numbers before playing an online game, which information was to be submitted to and verified by the National Citizen Identity Information Center, a subordinate public institution of the Ministry of Public Security, as of October 1, 2011. On October 25, 2019, GAPP issued the Notice of Preventing Minors from Indulging in Online Games to restrict game operators from providing online game services for minors in terms of playtime and payment amount. According to this Notice, (a) online game operators are prohibited from providing game services for minors from 20:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. each day; (b) playtime of minors cannot exceed 1.5 hours on workday and 3 hours on statutory holiday; and (c) online game operators shall impose cap of charge to minors and implement age-appropriate reminder system. These restrictions could limit our ability to increase our online game business among minors. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System.” In order to comply with these anti-fatigue rules, we set up our system so that after three hours of playing our online games, minors only receive half of the virtual items or other in-game benefits they would otherwise earn, and after playing for more than five hours, receive no in-game benefits. Failure to implement these restrictions, if detected by the relevant government agencies, may result in fines and other penalties for us, including the shutting down of our online game operations and license revocation. Furthermore, if these restrictions were expanded to apply to adult game players in the future, our online game business could be materially and adversely affected.

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In addition, on February 15, 2007, fourteen PRC regulatory authorities jointly promulgated a circular to further strengthen the oversight of internet cafes, one of the primary venues from which our platforms is accessed. In recent years, a large number of unlicensed internet cafes have been closed, and the PRC government has imposed higher capital and facility requirements for the establishment of internet cafes. Governmental authorities may from time to time impose stricter requirements on internet cafes, such as customer age limits and regulated hours of operation. Since a substantial portion of our users access our platforms from internet cafes, any reduction in the number, or slowdown in the growth, of internet cafes in China, or any new regulatory restrictions on their operations, could limit our ability to maintain or increase our revenues.

More stringent governmental regulations such as the ones outlined above may discourage game players from playing our games and have a material effect on our business operations.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of Chinese laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes and prior court decisions have limited value as precedents. Each of our PRC subsidiaries is a foreign-invested enterprise and is subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign-invested enterprises as well as various Chinese laws and regulations generally applicable to companies incorporated in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have substantial business operations in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally and by continued economic growth in China as a whole.

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the Chinese government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over the Chinese economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

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While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over the past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. The growth rate of the Chinese economy has gradually slowed since 2010, and the impact of COVID-19 on the Chinese economy in 2020 is likely to be severe. Any prolonged slowdown in the Chinese economy may reduce the demand for our products and services and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of internet business and companies.

The PRC government extensively regulates the internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the internet industry. These internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainty. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violations of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC regulation of the internet business include, but are not limited to, the following:

     We only have contractual control over our platforms in China. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities own our platforms due to the restriction of foreign investment in businesses providing value-added telecommunication services in China, including internet content provision services. If any of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities breaches its contractual arrangements with us and no longer remains under our control, this may significantly disrupt our business, subject us to sanctions, compromise enforceability of related contractual arrangements, or have other harmful effects on us.

     There are uncertainties relating to the regulation of the internet business in China, including evolving licensing practices and the requirement for real-name registrations. Permits, licenses or operations at some of our subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities levels may be subject to challenge, or we may fail to obtain permits or licenses that may be deemed necessary for our operations or we may not be able to obtain or renew certain permits or licenses. See “—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure and Our Industry—If our PRC consolidated affiliated entities fail to obtain and maintain the requisite licenses and approvals required under the complex regulatory environment for internet-based businesses in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation.”

     The evolving PRC regulatory system for the internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office (with the involvement of the State Council Information Office, or the SCIO, the MIIT and the Ministry of Public Security). The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the internet industry. We are unable to determine what policies this new agency or any new agencies to be established in the future may have or how they may interpret existing laws, regulations and policies and how they may affect us. Further, new laws, regulations or policies may be promulgated or announced that will regulate internet activities, including online video and online advertising businesses. If these new laws, regulations or policies are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations after they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

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On July 13, 2006, the MIIT issued the Notice of the Ministry of Information Industry on Intensifying the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services. This notice prohibits domestic telecommunication service providers from leasing, transferring or selling telecommunication business operating licenses to any foreign investor in any form, or providing any resources, sites or facilities to any foreign investor for their illegal operation of a telecommunication business in China. According to this notice, either the holder of a value-added telecommunication business operating license or its shareholders must be the registered holders of the domain names or trademarks used by such license holders in their provision of value-added telecommunication services. The notice also requires each license holder to have the necessary facilities, including servers, for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license. Currently, all contracts with telecommunication carriers and other service providers to host the servers used in our business were entered into by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities, and such arrangements are in compliance with this notice. Our PRC consolidated affiliated entities also own the related domain names and trademarks, and hold the ICP License necessary to conduct our operations in China.

The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business. There are also risks that we may be found to violate the existing or future laws and regulations given the uncertainty and complexity of China’s regulation of internet business.

Content posted or displayed on our platforms may be found objectionable by PRC regulatory authorities and may subject us to penalties and other severe consequences.

The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of information over the internet. Such regulations may intensify and become more stringent from time to time, subjecting us to increased levels of content monitoring requirements, which may increase our expenses and risk of non-compliance with relevant PRC regulations. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China or the public interest, or is obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Internet content providers are also prohibited from displaying content that may be deemed by relevant government authorities as “socially destabilizing” or leaking “state secrets” of the PRC. Furthermore, internet content providers who have broadcasted objectionable contents on one platform may be prohibited from broadcasting on all online live steaming platforms, and such prohibition should be adhered to by all other online streaming platforms. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, the closure of the concerned platforms and reputational harm. The operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to their platform. For a detailed discussion, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation.”

We allow visitors to our platforms to upload written materials, images, pictures, and other content on the forums on our websites, and also allow users to share, link to and otherwise access audio, video, games and other content from third parties through our platforms. For a description of how content can be accessed on or through our platforms, and what measures we take to lessen the likelihood that we will be held liable for the nature of such content, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Technology,” “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Intellectual Property,” and “—Risks Related to Our Business—We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims or other allegations, which could result in our payment of substantial damages, penalties and fines, removal of relevant content from our website or seeking license arrangements which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.”

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Since our inception, we have worked closely with relevant government authorities to monitor the content on our platforms and to make the utmost effort in complying with relevant laws and regulations. However, it may not be possible to timely determine in all cases the types of content that could result in our liability as an internet operator, and if any of our internet content is deemed by the PRC government to violate any content restrictions, we would not be able to continue to display such content and could become subject to penalties, including confiscation of income, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to potential liability for any unlawful actions of our users or third party service providers on our platforms or for content we distribute that is deemed inappropriate. For example, we have previously been subject to a few warnings and fines in an aggregate amount of RMB0.2 million in 2018 for having inappropriate content on our platforms. Although we corrected these non-compliances and undertook measures to prevent the recurrence of such instances, it may be difficult to determine the type of content or actions that may result in liability to us, and if we are found to be liable, we may be prevented from operating our business in China. Moreover, the costs of compliance with these regulations may continue to increase as a result of more content being uploaded or made available by an increasing number of users and third party partners and developers, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Although we have adopted internal procedures to monitor content uploaded to our website and to remove offending content once we become aware of any potential or alleged violation, we may not be able to identify all the content that may violate relevant laws and regulations or third party intellectual property rights and even if we manage to identify and remove offending content, we may still be held liable for such third-party content. Users may upload content or images containing content that infringes upon third-party copyrights or other illegal content and we may be subject to claims, including infringement claims or become involved in litigation proceedings due to such content. As a result, our reputation, business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Advertisements shown on our platforms may subject us to penalties and other administrative actions.

Under PRC advertising laws and regulations, we are obligated to monitor the advertising content shown on our platforms to ensure that such content is true and accurate and in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, where a special government review is required for specific types of advertisements prior to internet posting, such as advertisements relating to pharmaceuticals, medical instruments, agrochemicals and veterinary pharmaceuticals, we are obligated to confirm that such review has been performed and approval has been obtained. Violation of these laws and regulations may subject us to penalties, including fines, confiscation of our advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an announcement correcting the misleading information. In circumstances involving serious violations by us, PRC governmental authorities may force us to terminate our advertising operations or revoke our licenses.

While we have made significant efforts to ensure that the advertisements shown on our platforms are in full compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that all the content contained in such advertisements or offers is true and accurate as required by the advertising laws and regulations, especially given the uncertainty in the interpretation of these PRC laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of applicable PRC advertising laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties and our reputation may be harmed, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise,” which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law that became effective on January 1, 2008 and respectively amended on February 24, 2017 and December 29, 2018, an enterprise established outside the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. On April 22, 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprise on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Further to SAT Circular 82, on August 3, 2011, the SAT issued the Administrative Measures of Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or SAT Bulletin 45, which became effective on September 1, 2011, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82. SAT Bulletin 45 clarified certain issues in the areas of resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities.

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According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be considered as a PRC tax resident enterprise by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) more than half of the enterprise’s directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. SAT Bulletin 45 further clarifies the resident status determination, post-determination administration, as well as competent tax authorities.

Although SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise group instead of those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determination criteria set forth therein may reflect SAT’s general position on how the term “de facto management body” could be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, individuals or foreigners.

We do not meet all of the conditions above; therefore, we believe that we should not be treated as a “resident enterprise” for PRC tax purposes even if the standards for “de facto management body” prescribed in the SAT Circular 82 are applicable to us. For example, our minutes and files of the resolutions of our board of directors and the resolutions of our shareholders are maintained outside the PRC.

However, it is possible that the PRC tax authorities may take a different view. If the PRC tax authorities determine that our Cayman Islands holding company is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, then our world-wide income could be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 25%, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

Although dividends paid by one PRC tax resident to another PRC tax resident should qualify as “tax-exempt income” under the enterprise income tax law, we cannot assure you that dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to our Cayman Islands holding company will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax on dividends, and the PRC tax authorities have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes.

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We face uncertainties on the reporting and consequences on private equity financing transactions, private share transfers and share exchange involving the transfer of shares in our company by non-resident investors.

On February 3, 2015, the PRC State Administration of Taxation issued the Notice on Several Issues Concerning Enterprise Income Tax for Indirect Share Transfer by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or the SAT Circular 7, which partially replaced and supplemental previous rules under the Notice on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation on December 10, 2009, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2008, or SAT Circular 698. Pursuant to SAT Circular 7, an “indirect transfer” of assets of a PRC resident enterprise, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable properties, if such transaction arrangement lacks reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and tax filing or withholding obligations may be triggered, depending on the nature of the PRC taxable properties being transferred. According to SAT Circular 7, “PRC taxable properties” include assets of a PRC establishment or place of business, real properties in the PRC, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining if there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable properties; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consists of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable properties have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable properties; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment or place of business of a foreign enterprise, the resulting gain is to be included with the annual enterprise filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to PRC real properties or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor shall declare and pay such tax to the competent tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. Circular 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange. On October 17, 2017, SAT issued the Announcement on Issues Relating to Withholding at Source of Income Tax of Non-resident Enterprises, or SAT Circular 37, effective December 2017, superseded the Non-resident Enterprises Measures and SAT Circular 698 as a whole and partially amended some provisions in SAT Circular 7. SAT Circular 37 purports to clarify certain issues by providing the definition of equity transfer income and tax basis, the foreign exchange rate to be used in the calculation of withholding amount, and the date of occurrence of the withholding obligation. Specifically, SAT Circular 37 provides that where the transfer income subject to withholding at source is derived by a non-PRC resident enterprise in instalments, the instalments may first be treated as recovery of costs of previous investments. Upon recovery of all costs, the tax amount to be withheld must then be computed and withheld. Currently, the sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange is not considered an “indirect transfer” subject to the rules described above.

We cannot assure you that the PRC tax authorities will not, at their discretion, adjust any capital gains and impose tax return filing and withholding or tax payment obligations on the transferors and transferees of our shares acquired or sold outside a public stock exchange, while our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Any PRC tax imposed on a transfer of our shares or any adjustment of such gains would cause us to incur additional costs and may have a negative impact on the value of your investment in our company.

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If our preferential tax treatments are revoked or become unavailable or if the calculation of our tax liability is successfully challenged by the relevant tax authorities, we may be required to pay tax, interest and penalties in excess of our tax provisions, and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The Chinese government has provided various tax incentives to our subsidiaries in China. These incentives include reduced enterprise income tax rates. For example, under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, or the EIT Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and subsequently amended on February 24, 2017 and on December 29, 2018, respectively, the statutory enterprise income tax rate is 25%. However, Guangzhou Huaduo, our PRC consolidated affiliated entity in the PRC, renewed its qualification as a high and new technology enterprise, or HNTE, as of December 2, 2019 and, subject to the approval of an annual review by competent tax authorities in Guangdong, would be entitled to enjoy a preferential enterprise income tax rate of 15% for three years, from 2019 through 2021. In addition, in 2018, Guangzhou Huanju Shidai was qualified as a “Key National Software Enterprise” after relevant government authorities’ assessment and was entitled to a preferential income tax rate of 10%. Huya Technology qualified as a Software Enterprise and enjoyed tax exemption from 2017 to 2018. In 2019, Huya Technology assessed it is qualified as a KNSE and applied the preferential income tax rate of 10%. Guangzhou Huya was approved to be a HNTE in November 2018 and thus is entitled to enjoy a preferential tax rate of 15% for three years commencing January 1, 2018. Guangzhou BaiGuoYuan was qualified as a Software Enterprise and enjoyed the zero preferential tax rate in 2018 and 2019. BaiGuoYuan Technology is entitled to enjoy the preferential tax rate of 15% for the years from 2018 through 2020 and will need to re-apply for HNTE qualification renewal in 2021. However, if any of the abovementioned companies fails to maintain its qualification for preferential tax treatments, its applicable enterprise income tax rate may increase to 25% or the applicable standard tax rate, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, according to the applicable provisions under Singapore law, corporations that are engaging in new high-value-added projects, expanding or upgrading their operations, or undertaking incremental activities after their pioneer period may apply for their profits to be taxed at a reduced rate of 5%, at minimum, for an initial period of up to ten years. The total tax relief period for each qualifying project or activity is subject to a maximum of 40 years (inclusive of the post-pioneer relief period previously granted, if applicable). Bigo Technology Pte. Ltd., or Bigo Singapore, was approved for such preferential tax treatment, enabling it to enjoy the preferential tax rate of 5% with the valid period from 2018 to 2022. Bigo Singapore will need to re-apply for such preferential tax treatment in 2023.

China’s M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for certain acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

Six PRC regulatory agencies promulgated regulations effective on September 8, 2006, subsequently amended on June 22, 2009, that are commonly referred to as the M&A Rules. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—New M&A Regulations and Overseas Listings.” The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a Chinese domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council on August 3, 2008 and amended on September 18, 2018, are triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on August 30, 2007 which became effective on August 1, 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds (for example, during the previous fiscal year, (i) the total global turnover of all operators participating in the transaction exceeds RMB10 billion (US$1.4 billion) and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million (US$57.6 million) within China, or (ii) the total turnover within China of all the operators participating in the concentration exceeded RMB2 billion (US$0.3 billion) and at least two of these operators each had a turnover of more than RMB400 million (US$57.6 million) within China) must be cleared by the MOFCOM before they can be completed. In addition, on February 3, 2011, the General Office of the State Council promulgated a Notice on Establishing the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the Circular No. 6, which officially established a security review system for mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors. Under Circular No. 6, a security review is required for mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors having “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions by which foreign investors may acquire the “de facto control” of domestic enterprises with “national security” concerns.

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In the future, we may grow our business by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterparts, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions. It is unclear whether our business would be deemed to be in an industry that raises “national defense and security” or “national security” concerns. However, MOFCOM or other government agencies may publish explanations in the future determining that our business is in an industry subject to the security review, in which case our future acquisitions in the PRC, including those by way of entering into contractual control arrangements with target entities, may be closely scrutinized or prohibited. Our ability to expand our business or maintain or expand our market share through future acquisitions would as such be materially and adversely affected.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law.

The PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, has promulgated regulations, including the Notice on Relevant Issues Relating to Domestic Residents’ Investment and Financing and Round-Trip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular No. 37, effective on July 4, 2014, and its appendixes, that require PRC residents, including PRC institutions and individuals, to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular No. 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular No. 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in their ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiary. Further, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for foreign exchange evasion, including (i) the requirement by SAFE to return the foreign exchange remitted overseas within a period specified by SAFE, with a fine of up to 30% of the total amount of foreign exchange remitted overseas and deemed to have been evasive and (ii) in circumstances involving serious violations, a fine of no less than 30% of and up to the total amount of remitted foreign exchange deemed evasive. Furthermore, the persons-in-charge and other persons at our PRC subsidiaries who are held directly liable for the violations may be subject to criminal sanctions.

Our PRC resident shareholders, Mr. David Xueling Li and Jun Lei, had registered with the local SAFE branch. Since there remains uncertainty with respect to the interpretation and implementation of Circular No. 37, and we cannot predict how such SAFE regulations will affect our business operations. For example, our present and prospective PRC subsidiaries’ ability to conduct foreign exchange activities, such as the remittance of dividends and foreign currency-denominated borrowings, may be subject to compliance with the SAFE regulations by our PRC resident shareholders. In addition, in some cases, we may have little control over either our present or prospective direct or indirect PRC resident shareholders or the outcome of such registration procedures. A failure by our current or future PRC resident shareholders to comply with the SAFE regulations, including but not limited to any delay in subsequent filings, could subject us to fines or other legal sanctions, restrict our cross-border investment activities, limit our subsidiary’s ability to make distributions or pay dividends or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

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On February 15, 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly-Listed Companies, or the Stock Option Rules. Under the Stock Option Rules and other relevant rules and regulations, PRC residents who participate in stock incentive plan in an overseas publicly-listed company are required to register with SAFE or its local branches and complete certain other procedures. Participants of a stock incentive plan who are PRC residents must retain a qualified PRC agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas publicly listed company or another qualified institution selected by such PRC subsidiary, to conduct the SAFE registration and other procedures with respect to the stock incentive plan on behalf of its participants. Such participants must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options, the purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or interests and fund transfers. In addition, the PRC agent is required to amend the SAFE registration with respect to the stock incentive plan if there is any material change to the stock incentive plan, the PRC agent or the overseas entrusted institution or other material changes. We and our PRC employees who have been granted stock options, restricted shares and restricted share units are subject to these regulations, and are preparing to complete such SAFE registrations. Failure of our PRC stock option holders, restricted shareholders or restricted share units holders to complete their SAFE registrations may subject these PRC residents to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries, limited our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business.

PRC regulation of direct investment and loans by offshore holding companies to PRC entities may delay or limit us from using the proceeds of public offerings to make additional capital contributions or loans to our PRC subsidiaries.

We are an offshore holding company conducting our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entities. We may make loans to our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entities, or we may make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries.

Any capital contributions or loans that we, as an offshore entity, make to our PRC subsidiaries, including from the proceeds of our public offerings, are subject to PRC regulations. For example, none of our loans to a PRC subsidiary can exceed the difference between its total amount of investment and its registered capital approved under relevant PRC laws, and the loans must be registered with the local branch of SAFE. Our capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries must be approved by the MOFCOM or its local counterpart.

In August 2008, SAFE issued the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 142, regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency-registered capital into RMB by restricting how the converted RMB may be used. In addition, SAFE promulgated Circular 45 on November 9, 2011 in order to clarify the application of SAFE Circular 142. Under SAFE Circular 142 and Circular 45, the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable government authority and may not be used for equity investments within the PRC. In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of foreign-invested enterprises. The use of such RMB capital may not be changed without SAFE’s approval, and such RMB capital may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used.

Since SAFE Circular 142 has been in place for more than five years, in 2014, SAFE decided to further reform the foreign exchange administration system in order to satisfy and facilitate the business and capital operations of foreign invested enterprises, and issued the Circular on the Relevant Issues Concerning the Launch of Reforming Trial of the Administration Model of the Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises in Certain Areas on July 4, 2014, or SAFE Circular 36. SAFE Circular 36 suspends the application of SAFE Circular 142 in certain areas and allows a foreign-invested enterprise registered in such areas to use the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital for equity investments within the scope of business, which will be regarded as the reinvestment of foreign-invested enterprise. On March 30, 2015, SAFE issued the Circular on the Reforming of the Management Method of the Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, took effect on June 1, 2015, and replaced SAFE Circular 142 and SAFE Circular 36. Under SAFE Circular 19, a foreign-invested enterprise, within the scope of business, may also choose to convert its registered capital from foreign currency to RMB on a discretionary basis, and the RMB capital so converted can be used for equity investments within PRC, which will be regarded as the reinvestment of foreign-invested enterprise.

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The Notice of the SAFE on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, promulgated by the SAFE and became effective on June 9, 2016 provides that discretionary foreign exchange settlement applies to foreign exchange capital, foreign debt offering proceeds and remitted foreign listing proceeds, and the corresponding RMB capital converted from foreign exchange are not restricted from extending loans to related parties or repaying the inter-company loans (including advances by third parties). In January 2017, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Further Improving Reform of Foreign Exchange Administration and Optimizing Genuineness and Compliance Verification, or Circular 3, which stipulates several capital control measures with respect to the outbound remittance of profit from domestic entities to offshore entities, including (i) under the principle of genuine transaction, banks shall check board resolutions regarding profit distribution, the original version of tax filing records and audited financial statements; and (ii) domestic entities shall hold income to account for previous years’ losses before remitting the profits. Moreover, pursuant to Circular 3, domestic entities shall make detailed explanations of the sources of capital and utilization arrangements, and provide board resolutions, contracts and other proof when completing the registration procedures in connection with an outbound investment.

In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval on a timely basis, or at all. If we fail to complete the necessary registration or obtain the necessary approval, our ability to make loans or equity contributions to our PRC subsidiaries may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our PRC subsidiaries’ liquidity and their ability to fund their working capital and expansion projects and meet their obligations and commitments.

Our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries as well as consulting and other fees paid to us by our PRC consolidated affiliated entities for our cash and financing requirements, such as the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs, and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory condition and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiaries is required to set aside at least 10% of its accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. As of December 31, 2019, appropriations to statutory reserves amounting to RMB150.0 million were made by twenty-one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our PRC subsidiaries and PRC consolidated affiliated entities incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements. Our capital expenditures are primarily used to purchase office space.

In addition, the EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars, is based on rates set by the People’s Bank of China. The Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. The value of Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and by China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. We cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

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Substantially all of our revenues and costs are denominated in Renminbi. Any significant revaluation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our revenues, earnings and financial position, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into RMB for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of the RMB against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, a significant depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar may significantly reduce the U.S. dollar equivalent of our earnings, which in turn could adversely affect the price of our ADSs, and if we decide to convert RMB into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or ADSs, strategic acquisitions or investments or other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the RMB would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

Very limited hedging options are available in China to reduce our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. We have used derivative financial instruments including the forward exchange contracts to hedge our exposure to foreign exchange risks. While we may decide to continue to enter into hedging transactions in the future, the availability and effectiveness of these hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes control on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior SAFE approval by complying with certain procedural requirements. Therefore, our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from SAFE. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

If the custodians or authorized users of controlling non-tangible assets of our company, including our corporate chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including contracts such as revenue-sharing contracts with online game developers which are important to our business, are executed using the chops or seals of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant branch of the Administration of Industry and Commerce.

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Although we usually utilize chops to enter into contracts, the designated legal representatives of each of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops and bind such entities. All designated legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities are members of our senior management team who have signed employment agreements with us or our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities under which they agree to abide by various duties they owe to us. In order to maintain the physical security of our chops and chops of our PRC entities, we generally store these items in secured locations accessible only by the authorized personnel in the legal or finance department of each of our subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities. Although we monitor such authorized personnel, there is no assurance such procedures will prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. Accordingly, if any of our authorized personnel misuse or misappropriate our corporate chops or seals, we could encounter difficulties in maintaining control over the relevant entities and experience significant disruption to our operations. If a designated legal representative obtains control of the chops in an effort to obtain control over any of our PRC subsidiaries or consolidated affiliated entities, we or our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities would need to pass a new shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and we would need to take legal action to seek the return of the chops, apply for new chops with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal redress for the violation of the representative’s fiduciary duties to us, which could involve significant time and resources and divert management attention away from our regular business. In addition, the affected entity may not be able to recover corporate assets that are sold or transferred out of our control in the event of such a misappropriation if a transferee relies on the apparent authority of the representative and acts in good faith.

Our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is not permitted to be subject to inspection by Public Company Accounting Oversight Board or PCAOB, and as such, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

The independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with applicable professional standards. Because our auditor is located in the Peoples’ Republic of China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB. On May 24, 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and the Ministry of Finance which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations in the United States and China. PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. However, it remains unclear what further actions, if any, the SEC and PCAOB will take to address the problem. On April 21, 2020, the SEC and the PCAOB issued another joint statement reiterating the greater risk that disclosures will be insufficient in many emerging markets, including China, compared to those made by U.S. domestic companies. In discussing the specific issues related to the greater risk, the statement again highlights the PCAOB's inability to inspect audit work paper and practices of accounting firms in China, with respect to their audit work of U.S. reporting companies.

Inspections of other firms that the PCAOB has conducted outside China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and its quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

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As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, in June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress, which if passed, would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The proposed Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (EQUITABLE) Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the Nasdaq of issuers included on the SEC’s list for three consecutive years. Enactment of this legislation or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of the ADSs could be adversely affected. It is unclear if this proposed legislation would be enacted. Furthermore, there has been recent media reports on deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting China-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such deliberations were to materialize, the resulting legislation may have material and adverse impact on the stock performance of China-based issuers listed in the United States.

Additional remedial measures could be imposed on certain PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings instituted by the SEC, as a result of which our financial statements may be determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, if at all.

In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against the PRC-based Big Four accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that they had violated U.S. securities laws by failing to provide audit work papers and other documents related to certain other PRC-based companies under investigation by the SEC. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring and suspending these accounting firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The decision was neither final nor legally effective until reviewed and approved by the SEC, and on February 12, 2014, the PRC-based accounting firms appealed to the SEC against this decision. In February 2015, each of the four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC. The settlement required the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to such firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. If the firms did not follow these procedures or if there was failure in the process between the SEC and the CSRC, the SEC could impose penalties such as suspensions, or it could restart the administrative proceedings. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four PRC-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. While we cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four PRC-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions.

In the event that the PRC-based Big Four accounting firms become subject to additional legal challenges by the SEC or PCAOB, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding PRC-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our Class A common shares from the Nasdaq Global Select Market or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

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Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the new Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

On March 15, 2019, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, or the New Foreign Investment Law, which took effect on January 1, 2020, and on December 12, 2019, the Implementation Regulations of New Foreign Investment Law was promulgated by the State Council, which simultaneously came into force on January 1, 2020. The New Foreign Investment Law, together with the Implementation Regulations of New Foreign Investment Law, replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. This law is the legal foundation for foreign investment in the PRC. The New Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The Implementation Regulations of New Foreign Investment Law provide detailed rules for the principles of investment protection, promotion and management set forth in the New Foreign Investment Law.

The New Foreign Investment Law stipulates three forms of foreign investment, but does not explicitly stipulate the contractual arrangements under the “variable interest equity” structures as a form of foreign investment. The New Foreign Investment Law further stipulates that foreign investment includes “foreign investors invest in China through any other methods under laws, administrative regulations, or provisions prescribed by the State Council.” Therefore, it is possible that future laws, administrative regulations or provisions of the State Council may stipulate contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, and then whether the contractual arrangements will be recognized as a foreign investment, whether the contractual arrangements will be deemed to be in violation of the access requirements of foreign investment and how the contractual arrangements will be interpreted and handled remain uncertain. Conversely, if contractual arrangements are then incorporated as a form of foreign investment, it may materially impact our corporate governance practice and increase our compliance costs.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

The trading prices of our ADSs are likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The daily closing trading prices of our ADSs ranged from US$51.77 to US$88.50 in 2019. The trading price of our ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, like the performance and fluctuation in the market prices or the underperformance or deteriorating financial results of other similarly situated companies in China that have listed their securities in the United States in recent years. The securities of some of these companies have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings, including companies in internet and social networking businesses, may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting or other practices at other Chinese companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in such practices. Furthermore, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies like us. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.

In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be highly volatile due to specific factors, including the following:

     variations in our net revenues, earnings and cash flow;

     announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, or joint ventures;

     announcements of new services and expansions by us or our competitors;

     changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

     changes in the number of our registered or active users;

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     fluctuations in the number of paying users or other operating metrics;

     failure on our part to realize monetization opportunities as expected;

     additions or departures of key personnel;

     release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

     detrimental negative publicity about us, our competitors or our industry; and

     potential litigation or regulatory proceedings or changes.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which, in turn, could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale, or perceived sale or availability for sale, of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. Our ADSs are freely tradable by persons other than our affiliates without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and shares held by our existing shareholders may also be sold in the public market in the future subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. In addition, common shares subject to our outstanding share-based awards, including options, restricted shares and restricted share units, are eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting agreements, Rules 144 and 701 under the Securities Act. We may also issue additional options in the future which may be exercised for additional common shares and additional restricted shares and restricted share units which may vest. As of March 31, 2020, we had 1,247,848,466 Class A common shares (excluding 55,422,958 outstanding restricted shares and treasury Class A common shares held by entities controlled by us) and 326,509,555 Class B common shares outstanding. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of our ADSs.

We believe that we were a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2019, which could subject United States holders of our ADSs or Class A common shares to significant adverse United States income tax consequences.

We will be classified as a “passive foreign investment company,” or “PFIC” for United States federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, if either (a) 75% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of “passive” income or (b) 50% or more of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income. Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat our PRC consolidated affiliated entities as being owned by us for United States federal income tax purposes, not only because we exercise effective control over the operation of such entities but also because we are entitled to substantially all of their economic benefits, and, as a result, we consolidate their operating results in our consolidated financial statements.

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Based on the market price of our ADSs and the composition of our assets (in particular the substantial amount of cash, deposits and investments), we believe that we were a PFIC for United States federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2019, and no assurances can be given with respect to our PFIC status for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2020 or any future taxable year.

If we are classified as a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may incur significantly increased United States income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or Class A common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or Class A common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the United States federal income tax rules. Further, if we are classified as a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. holder holds our ADSs or Class A common shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. holder holds our ADSs or Class A common shares. Alternatively, U.S. holders of PFIC shares can sometimes avoid the rules described above by making certain elections, including a “mark-to-market” election or electing to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund.” However, U.S. holders will not be able to make an election to treat us as a “qualified electing fund” because, even if we were to be or become a PFIC, we do not intend to comply with the requirements necessary to permit U.S. holders to make such election. Each U.S. holder is urged to consult its tax advisor concerning the United States federal income tax considerations relating to the ownership and disposition of our ADSs or Class A common shares if we are treated as a PFIC for our current taxable year ending December 31, 2020 or any future taxable year (including the possibility of making a “mark-to-market” election and the unavailability of an election to treat us as a qualified electing fund). For more information see “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation— United States Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

Provisions of our convertible senior notes could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party.

In June, 2019, we completed the offering of US$500 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior notes due 2025 and US$500 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior notes due 2026. Certain provisions of our convertible senior notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. The indentures for the convertible senior notes define a “fundamental change” to include, among other things and subject to certain qualifications specified therein: (i) any person or group becoming a direct or indirect beneficial owner of our company’s ordinary share capital (including ordinary share capital held in the form of ADSs) representing more than 50% of the voting power of our ordinary share capital, or Lei Jun, Top Brand Holdings Limited, David Xueling Li and YYME Limited and their affiliates collectively becoming the direct or indirect beneficial owner of Class A common shares representing more than 50% of the number of outstanding Class A common shares; (ii) any recapitalization, reclassification or change of our Class A common shares or ADSs as a result of which these securities would be converted into, or exchanged for, stock, other securities, other property or assets or any share exchange, consolidation or merger of our company pursuant to which our Class A common shares or ADSs will be converted into cash, securities or other property or any sale, lease or other transfer in one transaction or a series of transaction of all or substantially all of our consolidated assets, taken as a whole, to any person other than one of our subsidiaries; (iii) the approval of any plan or proposal for the liquidation or dissolution of our company by our shareholders; (iv) our ADSs ceasing to be listed or quoted on any of The New York Stock Exchange, The NASDAQ Global Select Market or The NASDAQ Global Market (or any of their respective successors); or (v) any change in or amendment to the laws, regulations and rules in the PRC or the official interpretation or official application thereof that prohibits us from operating substantially all of our business operations and prevents us from continuing to derive substantially all of the economic benefits from our business operations. Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change, holders of these notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase all of their notes or any portion of the principal amount of such notes in principal amounts of US$1,000 or integral multiples thereof. In the event of a fundamental change, we may also be required to issue additional ADSs upon conversion of our convertible notes.

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Our dual class common share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our common shares are divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares are entitled to ten votes per share, voting together as one class on all matters requiring a shareholders’ vote. Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstances. Upon any transfer of Class B common shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity that is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B common shares will be automatically and immediately converted into an equal number of Class A common shares.

Due to the disparate voting powers attached to these two classes of common shares, as of March 31, 2020, Mr. David Xueling Li and his respective affiliates, held 75.8% of the total voting power of our company and have considerable influence over all matters requiring a shareholders’ vote, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or our assets. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our common shares and ADSs.

Our articles of association contain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our common shares, in the form of ADSs or otherwise. Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law, Cap. 22 (Law 3 of 1961, as consolidated and revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, shareholders of a Cayman Islands company may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Unlike many jurisdictions in the United States, Cayman Islands law does not generally provide for shareholder appraisal rights on an approved arrangement and reconstruction of a company. This may make it more difficult for you to assess the value of any consideration you may receive in a merger or consolidation or to require that the offeror gives you additional consideration if you believe the consideration offered is insufficient. Moreover, holders of our ADSs are not entitled to appraisal rights under Cayman Islands law. ADS holders that wish to exercise their appraisal or dissentient rights must convert their ADSs into our Class A common shares by surrendering their ADSs to the depositary and paying the ADS depositary fee.

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Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (except our memorandum and articles of association) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our existing articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

Judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable in our home jurisdiction.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and a majority of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, a significant majority of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States and most of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the United States federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

There are uncertainties as to whether Cayman Islands courts would:

     recognize or enforce against us or our directors or officers judgments of courts of the United States based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws; and

     impose liabilities against us or our directors or officers, in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands, based on certain civil liability provisions of U.S. securities laws that are penal in nature. There is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will generally recognize and enforce a foreign money judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without reexamination of the merits of the underlying disputes provided that such judgment (i) imposes on the judgment debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given; (ii) is final; (iii) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or penalty; and (iv) was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

     the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;

     the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

     the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their share ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

     the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

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We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Press releases relating to financial results and material events are also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC are less extensive and less timely as compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by United States domestic issuers. As a Cayman Islands company listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, we are subject to the Nasdaq Global Select Market corporate governance requirements. However, the Nasdaq Global Select Market permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow certain corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the Nasdaq Global Select Market corporate governance requirements.

We relied on the exemption available to foreign private issuers to the requirement that each member of the compensation committee be an independent director. Currently, the chairman of our compensation committee, Mr. David Xueling Li, is not an independent director. We also relied on the exemption available to foreign private issuers to the requirement that shareholder approval should be obtained in certain circumstances prior to an issuance of securities in connection with the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company, and the requirement that shareholder approval should be obtained prior to the issuance of securities when a stock option or purchase plan is to be established or materially amended or other equity compensation arrangement made or materially amended, pursuant to which stock may be acquired by officers, directors, employees, or consultants. We relied on home country practice exemption and did not convene a shareholder meeting to approve the 2019 Arrangement. See “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees—B. Compensation of Directors and Executive Officers—2019 Share Incentive Arrangement” for more information. If we continue to rely on the above and other exemptions available to foreign private issuers in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under the Nasdaq Global Select Market corporate governance requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information, which would be made available to you, were you investing in a United States domestic issuer.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to vote your Class A common shares.

As a holder of our ADSs, you will only be able to exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A common shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you must vote by giving voting instructions to the depositary. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will vote the underlying Class A common shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with these instructions. You will not be able to directly exercise your right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A common shares unless you withdraw the shares from the depositary. Under our second amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required for convening a general meeting is at least ten clear days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice to withdraw the underlying Class A common shares underlying represented by your ADSs to allow you to vote with respect to any specific matter. If we ask for your instructions, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and will arrange to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your underlying Class A common shares represented by your ADSs. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying Class A common shares underlying represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested. The depositary for our ADSs will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares represented by your ADSs if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, except in limited circumstances, which could adversely affect your interests.

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if you do not vote, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote our Class A common shares represented by your ADSs at shareholders’ meetings unless:

     we have failed to timely provide the depositary with notice of meeting and related voting materials;

     we have instructed the depositary that we do not wish a discretionary proxy to be given;

     we have informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition as to a matter to be voted on at the meeting;

     a matter to be voted on at the meeting would have a material adverse impact on shareholders; or

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     the voting at the meeting is to be made on a show of hands.

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if you do not vote at shareholders’ meetings, you cannot prevent our Class A common shares represented by your ADSs from being voted, except under the circumstances described above. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our common shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our common shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on Class A common shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as a rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks that it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. As a result, you may be unable to transfer your ADSs when you wish to.

ITEM 4.               INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A. History and Development of the Company

We commenced operations in April 2005 with the establishment of Guangzhou Huaduo in China. Guangzhou Huaduo later became one of our PRC consolidated affiliated entities through the contractual arrangements described below.

We established Dokhi Investments Limited in the British Virgin Islands, or BVI, in July 2006 and changed its name to Duowan Limited in September 2006. In August 2006, we established Double Top Limited, which is wholly owned by Dokhi Investments Limited, in Hong Kong and changed its name to Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in September 2006. In April 2007, we established Guangzhou Duowan Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Guangzhou Duowan, which was wholly owned by Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited. Guangzhou Duowan entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Guangzhou Huaduo, through which Guangzhou Duowan exercised effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo.

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In November 2007, we established Duowan Entertainment Corporation, or Duowan BVI, in the BVI. In March 2008, we established Huanju Shidai Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., formerly known as Duowan Entertainment Information Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or Beijing Huanju Shidai, which is wholly owned by Duowan BVI. Beijing Huanju Shidai purchased all the equity interests in Guangzhou Duowan from Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited in August 2008, and entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Guangzhou Huaduo and its shareholders through which Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huaduo. Duowan (Hong Kong) Limited was deregistered as a company and ceased to operate in May 2010.

In December 2008, Duowan BVI entered into an agreement with Morningside Technology Investments Limited and two individuals, through which Duowan BVI purchased all the equity interests in NeoTasks Inc. from Morningside Technology Investments Limited.

In March 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into an agreement with NeoTasks New Age International Media Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or NeoTasks Beijing, through which NeoTasks Beijing was merged into Beijing Huanju Shidai. After the merger and additional capital contribution, Beijing Huanju Shidai became 96.5% held by Duowan BVI, and 3.5% held by NeoTasks Limited (formerly known as Enlight Online Entertainment Limited), a Hong Kong company, which in turn was the shareholder of NeoTasks Beijing before the merger. NeoTasks Limited is 100% owned by NeoTasks Inc., a Cayman Islands company. In August 2009, Guangzhou Duowan was renamed Zhuhai Duowan Information Technology Co., Ltd.

In December 2009, Beijing Huanju Shidai entered into a series of contractual agreements with Beijing Tuda and its shareholders, which were subsequently amended solely to reflect updated shareholder equity interests in Beijing Tuda, through which agreements Beijing Huanju Shidai exercises effective control over the operations of Beijing Tuda.

In December 2010, we established Guangzhou Huanju Shidai, formerly known as Zhuhai Duowan Technology Co., Ltd., which is 100% directly owned by Duowan BVI.

Our holding company, YY Inc., was incorporated in July 2011 as an exempted company with limited liability in the Cayman Islands. The corporate affairs of YY Inc. are governed by the memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law, Cap. 22 (Law 3 of 1961, as consolidated and revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. Through a share exchange on September 6, 2011, the shareholders of Duowan BVI exchanged all of their outstanding common and preferred shares in Duowan BVI for common and preferred shares of YY Inc. on a pro rata basis. No additional consideration was paid in connection with the share exchange. As a result, Duowan BVI became a wholly owned subsidiary of YY Inc.

In the fourth quarter of 2014, Guangzhou Huaduo acquired 100% of the equity interests in both Beijing Huanqiu Xingxue Technology Development Co., Ltd, or Beijing Xingxue, and Beijing Huanqiu Chuangzhi Software Co., Ltd., which operate the online education website Edu24oL.com, an online vocational training and language training platform. In addition, we acquired 100% of the equity interests in both Zhengrenqiang and His Partners Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., which was later renamed 100-Online Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd., or 100-Online, a company specializing in providing preparation courses for the International English Language Testing System, or IELTS, which is an English language proficiency test, and Beijing Dubooker Culture Communication Co., Ltd., or Dubooker, a language education publisher. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we sold majority equity interests in Beijing Xingxue following which we hold 33.14% of equity interests in Beijing Xingxue. We dissolved Dubooker and 100-Online in October 2016 and January 2017, respectively.

In the first quarter of 2015, Duowan BVI established and became a limited partner holding 93.5% equity interests of, Engage Capital Partners I, L.P., which is a private equity fund registered in the Cayman Islands. In June 2015, as a limited partner holding 93.5% equity interests, Guangzhou Huaduo established Shanghai Yilian Equity Investment Partnership (LP), a private equity fund registered in China. In June 2017, Guangzhou Huaduo established and became a limited partner holding 99% equity interests of Guangzhou Yilian Yixing Equity Investment Partnership (LP), a private equity fund registered in China.

In May 2015, we established Zhuhai Huanju Interactive Entertainment Technology Co., Ltd., which is 100% directly owned by Guangzhou Huaduo.

In July 2015, we established Guangzhou Huanju Electronic Commerce Co., Ltd., which is 100% directly owned by Guangzhou Huaduo.

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In August 2015, Duowan BVI acquired 55.05% of the equity interests in BiLin Information Technology Co., Ltd., or BiLin Cayman, a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands that develops and operates instant voice chatting applications for mobile devices. BiLin Cayman is the sole shareholder of BiLin Information Technology Co., Limited, which is in turn the sole shareholder of Bilin Changxiang. Bilin Changxiang entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Bilin Online, and its shareholders, through which Bilin Changxiang exercises effective control over the operations of Bilin Online. In the first quarter of 2018, we acquired the minority equity interests in BiLin Cayman, and BiLin Cayman became a wholly owned subsidiary of Duowan BVI.

In January 2016, we established Guangzhou Huanju Microfinance Co., Ltd., which aims to engage in financing business as a wholly owned subsidiary of Guangzhou Huaduo.

In April 2016, we established Guangzhou Sanrenxing 100-EducationTechnology Co., Ltd. or Sanrenxing, which entered into a series of VIE agreements and completed its VIE restructure in October 2018. As of the date of this annual report, Sanrenxing is 46.55% directly owned by Guangzhou Huaduo.

In August 2016, we established Guangzhou Huya, which is 100% directly owned by Guangzhou Huaduo. In 2017, Guangzhou Huaduo transferred 0.99% of the equity interest of Guangzhou Huya to Guangzhou Qinlv, which is wholly owned by Mr. Rongjie Dong, the CEO of HUYA Inc. In December 31, 2016, we completed transfer of all assets, including trademarks, domain names, business contracts and tangible assets, relating to our game live streaming business to Guangzhou Huya.

In 2017, we established HUYA Inc., Huya Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of HUYA Inc. in Hong Kong and Guangzhou Huya Technology Co., Ltd., or Huya Technology, wholly-owned by Huya Limited. In July 2017, Huya Technology, Guangzhou Huya and its shareholders, Guangzhou Huaduo and Guangzhou Qinlv, entered into a series of VIE agreements, through which Huya Technology exercises effective control over the operations of Guangzhou Huya. Guangzhou Huya has obtained the licenses to provide internet-related service in the PRC. On March 8, 2018, we and HUYA Inc., through our respective PRC affiliated entities, entered into a non-compete agreement. Pursuant to this non-compete agreement, we agree not to compete with HUYA Inc. in certain areas of its core business, for a term of four years from the date of this non-compete agreement.

In July 2017, HUYA Inc. issued series A shares to a group of investors for an aggregate amount of US$75 million. In March 2018, HUYA Inc. issued 64,488,235 shares of Series B-2 redeemable convertible preferred shares at a price of US$7.16 per share for a cash consideration of US$461.6 million to Linen Investment Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tencent Holdings Limited. Pursuant to the agreements entered into in this series B-2 financing transaction, Tencent has a right, exercisable between March 8, 2020 and March 8, 2021, to purchase at the then fair market price additional shares to reach 50.10% of the voting powers in HUYA Inc. As part of the Series B-2 financing transaction, Tencent and HUYA Inc., through their respective PRC affiliated entities, entered into a business cooperation agreement, which became effective on March 8, 2018. Pursuant to this business cooperation agreement, the parties agreed to establish strategic cooperation in various aspects regarding game live streaming business and other game related business. In May 2018, HUYA Inc. successfully completed its initial public offering of 17,250,000 ADSs at a price of US$12.0 per ADS, including 2,250,000 ADSs offered pursuant to the underwriters’ full exercise of their over-allotment options. In April 2019, HUYA Inc. successfully completed a follow-on public offering, issuing 13,600,000 ADSs (or 15,640,000 ADSs if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional ADSs in full) at a price of US$24.00 per ADS. Each HUYA Inc. ADS represents one Class A ordinary share of HUYA Inc. On April 3, 2020, we transferred 16,523,819 Class B ordinary shares of HUYA Inc. to Linen Investment Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tencent for an aggregate purchase price of approximately US$262.6 million in cash, pursuant to Tencent’s exercise of its option to purchase additional shares of Huya from us. The purchase price was determined based on the average closing prices of Huya’s American depositary shares in the last 20 trading days prior to the receipt of Tencent’s written exercise notice by us and Huya in accordance with Huya’s second amended and restated shareholders agreement dated March 8, 2018. As a result of the closing of the share transfer, Tencent increased its voting power in Huya to 50.1% on a fully-diluted basis, or 50.9% calculated based on the total issued and outstanding shares of Huya, and will consolidate financial statements of Huya. As of April 3, 2020, we held 68,374,463 Class B ordinary shares of Huya, representing approximately 43.0% of the total voting power calculated based on the total issued and outstanding shares of Huya. Starting from April 3, 2020, we no longer consolidate the operating results of Huya.

In May 2018, we established TIEN Direction Inc., which in turn established Hago Singapore Pte. Ltd.

In June 2018, we invested US$272 million in the Series D round of financing of Bigo as the lead investor. We were then an existing shareholder of Bigo and had become its largest shareholder after the Series D financing.

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In March 2019, we completed the acquisition of the remaining 68.3% of equity interest in Bigo from the other shareholders of Bigo, including Mr. David Xueling Li, our chairman of the board of directors and chief executive officer. We paid US$343.1 million in cash and resulted in issuance of 38,326,579 Class B common shares to Mr. David Xueling Li and 305,127,046 outstanding Class A common shares to Mr. David Xueling Li and other selling shareholders of Bigo. As of the date of this annual report, we wholly own Bigo.

In March 2019, we entered into a strategic partnership agreement with Shanghai Chuangsi Enterprise Development Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Chuangsi. Under the agreement, we will exchange for certain equity interest of Shanghai Chuangsi by contributing YY segment’s online game business into Shanghai Chuangsi. The transaction was completed in December 2019, after which the financial results of YY segment’s online games would no longer be consolidated in our financial results.

Effective December 20, 2019, we changed our corporate name from “YY Inc.” to “JOYY Inc.” We began trading under the new corporate name on December 30, 2019.

YY Inc. completed an initial public offering of 7,800,000 ADSs, representing 156,000,000 Class A common shares, in November 2012. On November 21, 2012, our ADSs were listed on The Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol “YY.” In December 2012, in connection with the initial public offering, we also completed the over-allotment offering of an additional 1,170,000 ADSs, representing 23,400,000 Class A common shares.

On August 21, 2017, we completed our registered follow-on public offering and over-allotment to the underwriters. We issued and sold a total of 6,612,500 ADSs in these transactions, representing 132,250,000 Class A common shares. We received the net proceeds of US$442.2 million, after deducting commissions and offering expenses.

In June, 2019, we completed the offering of US$500 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior notes due 2025, or the 2025 Notes, and US$500 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible senior notes due 2026, or the 2026 Notes, which included the exercise in full by the initial purchasers of their option to purchase an additional US$75 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2025 Notes and US$75 million in aggregate principal amount of the 2026 Notes. We collectively refer to the 2025 Notes and the 2026 Notes as the Notes in this annual report. The Notes have been offered in the United States to qualified institutional buyers pursuant to Rule 144A and to non-U.S. persons outside the United States in reliance on Regulation S under the Securities Act. The initial conversion rate of the 2025 Notes is 10.4271 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of the 2025 Notes. The initial conversion rate of the 2026 Notes is 10.4271 ADSs per US$1,000 principal amount of such the 2026 Notes. The relevant conversion rate for each series of the Notes is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain events. The 2025 Notes bear interest at a rate of 0.75% per year, and the 2026 Notes bear interest at a rate of 1.375% per year. Interest on the both the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes will accrue from, and including, June 24, 2019 and will be payable semiannually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year, beginning on December 15, 2019. The 2025 Notes will mature on June 15, 2025 and the 2026 Notes will mature on June 15, 2026, unless repurchased, redeemed or converted in accordance with their terms prior to such date. We may not redeem the Notes prior to maturity, unless certain tax-related events occur. The holders may require us to repurchase all or part of their Notes in cash on June 15, 2023, in the case of the 2025 Notes, and June 15, 2024, in the case of the 2026 Notes, or in the event of certain fundamental changes. In connection with the offering the 2025 Notes and the 2026 Notes, we have entered into capped call transactions with certain counterparties. The cap price of the capped call transactions is initially US$127.87 per ADS and is subject to adjustment under the terms of the capped call transactions. On March 25, 2020, we announced a convertible notes repurchase plan under which we may repurchase up to an aggregate of US$200 million of the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes over the next 12 months. The convertible notes repurchases may be made from time to time through legally permissible means, depending on market conditions and in accordance with applicable rules and regulations. Our board will review the convertible notes repurchase plan periodically, and may authorize adjustment of its terms and size. We expect to fund repurchases made under this plan from our existing funds.

Our principal executive offices locate at Building B-1, North Block of Wanda Plaza, No. 79 Wanbo Er Road, Nancun Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511442, the People's Republic of China. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Conyers Trust Company (Cayman) Limited of Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman, KYI-1111, Cayman Islands.

See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures” for a discussion of our capital expenditures and divestitures.

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SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC on www.sec.gov. You can also find information on our website http://ir.yy.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this annual report.

B. Business Overview

Overview

We are a leading global social media platform, offering users around the world a uniquely engaging and immersive experience across various video-based content categories, such as live streaming, short-form videos and video communication. For our users, our products serve as the destination for creating, sharing and enjoying a vast range of video-based content and activities.

     Live streaming platforms — YY Live, Bigo Live and Huya. YY Live is an interactive and comprehensive live streaming social media platform, offering content such as music and dance shows, talk shows, outdoor activities, sports and anime. Bigo Live, with strong presence in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, the U.S. and South Asia, enables global users to live stream their specific moments and talk live with each other. Huya is a game live streaming platform in China. Through close cooperation with e-sports event organizers, as well as major game developers and publishers, Huya has developed e-sports live streaming into the most popular content genre on its platform. As a result of the share transfer to Tencent on April 3, 2020, we no longer consolidate the results of operations of Huya.

     Short-form video platform — Likee. Likee is a leading global short-form video social platform, with a fast growing and highly engaged user base that produces, uploads, views, shares and comments on short-form videos on a daily basis. We have continued to expand Likee's geographic coverage, refine its content offerings, and augment its monetization capabilities.

     Other key products — (i) imo: Our video communication product imo has attracted a massive and highly engaged video-oriented user base in South Asia, the Middle East and other global regions, by offering frictionless video calls and other communication tools such as two-way video calls, group calls and video sharing. imo has also proven itself to be an efficient and powerful distribution channel for our live streaming and short-form video content, (ii) Hago: Hago is a casual-game-oriented social platform that integrates multiple social features, such as live streaming chatrooms and karaoke. As a result, Hago encourages young users to use these features to establish and maintain social connections while enjoying casual games.

With our pioneering business model in China, we have accumulated deep expertise in building and operating a vibrant video content ecosystem since our inception in 2005. Foreseeing the massive global opportunities, we began to expand overseas first by investing in Bigo in 2014, followed by the internationalization of YY Live and Huya, and lately by acquiring Bigo in March 2019. Our business model is not only successful in China, but has also been tested and replicated effectively on a global basis.

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, which has been woven into our corporate fabric, permeates and is integral to all critical aspects of our services and broader business operations: from visual and voice recognition, content recommendation and distribution that optimizes users’ viewing experience, to automated product beta testing and critical corporate decision-making, such as budgeting. As AI improved the accuracy and effectiveness of our content and host recommendations, and optimized our other efforts aimed at improving user experience.

Our business model optimizes the seamless integration of traffic generation, user engagement and monetization. While the basic use of our platforms is currently free to attract traffic, we monetize our user base mainly through virtual tips for live streaming. We believe that we will be able to capitalize on our large and highly engaged user base around the world by enriching our video content categories, exploring additional monetization opportunities and diversifying our main revenue sources.

We believe that we will be able to capitalize on our large, growing and highly engaged user base around the world by enriching our video content categories, exploring additional monetization opportunities and diversifying our main revenue sources, such as advertising and e-commerce.

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Our Platforms and Products

YY Live

In June 2016, we revamped our online music and entertainment live streaming services to form the YY Live platform. With its increasing popularity of and growing content, YY Live has been transformed into an interactive and comprehensive live streaming social media platform. Users of YY Live may enjoy the live streaming services on YY Live App, YY Live website, or YY Client to enjoy a wide variety of live streaming content, including, among others, music and dance show, talk show, outdoor activities, sports, anime and games. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the average mobile monthly active users of YY Live reached 41.2 million, increasing by 3.8% from the same period in 2018.

We develop mobile applications to provide a variety of live streaming content to our users through mobile operating systems and make live streaming services available at finger tips. While we continue to develop and upgrade our platforms, we rebranded Mobile YY, our first and main mobile application, into YY Live App, which primarily provides users access to our live streaming content offered on our YY Live platform. To better accommodate the increasing demands of our users to access more content on our YY Live platform, we developed a number of additional mobile applications, each of which dedicates to a specific type of content or functions. Users can access contents on our YY Live platform through all these mobile applications, and retrieve contents most suitable to individual preferences and interests.

As our core PC product, YY Client provides access to user-created online social activities groups, which we refer to as channels. YY Client is compatible with most internet-enabled systems, including PCs and mobile interfaces. YY Client also contains the game center which consists of a game lobby and VIP game access services, enabling users to access various online games without downloading any additional client software. The first version of YY Client, launched in July 2008, had voice-enabled features that allowed online game players to communicate with large groups of fellow gamers on a real-time basis. Game players typically organize various guilds for players to discuss gaming strategies and communicate with each other in a team setting. Such online guilds, which can consist of up to thousands of players, built their own channels on YY Client to communicate with fellow guild members in real time when playing games online. Gradually, we further developed and tailored YY Client in response to the market need for a platform enabling large groups to gather, meet and socialize in real time online, and turned it into the rich communication social product that it is today. We introduced live video-enabled channels beginning in late 2011 and have since applied video features to all our channels.

We also operate the website YY.com, which enables users to conduct real-time interactions and watch live streaming content through web browsers on both PC and mobile, without requiring any downloads or installations. We optimize our technologies for the web format, transcending the limitations of operational systems and enabling real-time communications and live streaming on the web.

Bigo Live

Operated by Bigo, Bigo Live is a leading global live streaming platform focusing on markets outside of China. Bigo Live allows the users to live stream their specific moments, live talk with other users, make video calls and watch trend video. It also has features like music live house and cross-room PK. With a strong presence in South-Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, the Middle East and America, Bigo Live has established global footprints. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the average mobile monthly active users of Bigo Live reached 23.1 million, increasing by 18.6% from the same period in 2018. Bigo Live’s revenue contribution from developed market continued to ramp up in 2019.

Huya

In November 2014, we launched Huya, with a focus on live streaming of gaming content. After years of coverage expansion and user accumulation, Huya has become a leading live streaming platform in China with a primary focus on games, covering a wide variety of content such as online games, console games, mobile games, entertainments and sports. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the average mobile monthly active users of Huya reached 61.6 million, increasing by 21.5% from the same period in 2018. Since 2018, Huya has started to offer game live streaming services outside of China through a new platform, Nimo TV. As a result of the share transfer to Tencent on April 3, 2020, we no longer consolidate the results of operations of Huya.

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Likee

Operated by Bigo, Likee is a leading short form video social platform worldwide. Likee originally focused on enabling users to create short form video by utilizing functions such as music and effect filter, cinematic effects (including 4D backgrounds), acting and lip-sync, face stickers and special effects toolkits. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the average mobile monthly active users of Likee reached 115.3 million, increasing by 208.3% from the same period in 2018. Likee has facilitated a large volume of user generated short form video content to be produced, uploaded, viewed, shared and commented on a daily basis. In 2019, we also introduced a variety of new features and functions, including data visualization tools, collaborative travel vlog projects, AI based image cropping, photo series and face swapping features. These new features significantly lower the short-form video production entry barrier to users, became smashed mass hits upon launching, and attracted millions of users worldwide to create and share videos with their friends. Likee introduced a support program in 2019 to attract more high-quality content creators to cultivate an increasingly diverse, engaging and entertaining content library.

Likee organized a variety of offline events to increase the activeness of its user and creator communities around the globe. For example, in June 2019, Likee co-organized an award ceremony for key influencers in the digital world with local music radio stations, celebrity agencies, and digital media in India. A large number of local artists, as well as key opinion leaders in fashion, beauty, travel, food, and body-building participated in the event. Likee also hosted an offline event named Likee Party Moscow in Russia in August 2019. Our success in organizing such local offline events in different countries and regions demonstrates Likee’s unique capability in establishing cultural connections among young users, inspiring their creativity and self-expression, and boosting their enthusiasm towards original content production, all of which